Review and pooled analysis of studies on MTHFR C677T polymorphism and esophageal cancer.Toxicol Lett 2009; 184(2):73-80TL
Esophageal cancer has been associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, gastric reflux, exposure to nitrosamines from food or other environmental sources, and diets lacking folate. Susceptibility to esophageal cancer may be modified by functional polymorphisms in genes along the folate metabolic pathway, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). The C677T polymorphism is the most common functional variant, leading to a reduction in enzyme activity. We report a pooled analysis of 5 studies on the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and esophageal cancer, including 725 cases and 1531 controls. A significant association between the MTHFR 677 TT genotype and esophageal cancer was observed (OR=2.63, 95% CI: 1.75-3.94), although there was significant heterogeneity between studies. A sensitivity analysis excluded one study; the association between TT genotype and esophageal cancer was still present, although of reduced magnitude (OR=1.57, 95% CI: 0.96-2.56). A significant interaction between smoking and TT genotype on esophageal cancer risk was observed, while no interaction was observed between alcohol consumption and genotype.