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Prothrombin/thrombin and the thrombin receptors PAR-1 and PAR-4 in the brain: localization, expression and participation in neurodegenerative diseases.
Thromb Haemost. 2008 Oct; 100(4):576-81.TH

Abstract

Emerging evidence demonstrates that thrombin exerts physiological and pathological functions in the central nervous system. Both prothrombin and its active form thrombin have been detected locally in the brain. The cellular functions of thrombin are mainly regulated by G protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PARs). Thrombin can signal via PAR-1, PAR-3 and PAR-4. Some neurological diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease) are characterized by increased levels of both active thrombin and PAR-1. This indicates that thrombin and its receptor may be closely involved in the development of neurodegenerative processes. The role of thrombin in brain injury can be either protective or deleterious, depending on the concentration of thrombin. Thrombin at high concentrations exacerbates brain damage. In contrast, low concentrations of thrombin rescue neural cells from death after brain insults. Also thrombin preconditioning has neuroprotective effects. Therefore, thrombin and thrombin receptors represent novel therapeutic targets for treating neurodegenerative diseases.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Institut für Neurobiochemie, Leipziger Strasse 44, Magdeburg, Germany.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18841278

Citation

Sokolova, Elena, and Georg Reiser. "Prothrombin/thrombin and the Thrombin Receptors PAR-1 and PAR-4 in the Brain: Localization, Expression and Participation in Neurodegenerative Diseases." Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 100, no. 4, 2008, pp. 576-81.
Sokolova E, Reiser G. Prothrombin/thrombin and the thrombin receptors PAR-1 and PAR-4 in the brain: localization, expression and participation in neurodegenerative diseases. Thromb Haemost. 2008;100(4):576-81.
Sokolova, E., & Reiser, G. (2008). Prothrombin/thrombin and the thrombin receptors PAR-1 and PAR-4 in the brain: localization, expression and participation in neurodegenerative diseases. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 100(4), 576-81.
Sokolova E, Reiser G. Prothrombin/thrombin and the Thrombin Receptors PAR-1 and PAR-4 in the Brain: Localization, Expression and Participation in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Thromb Haemost. 2008;100(4):576-81. PubMed PMID: 18841278.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prothrombin/thrombin and the thrombin receptors PAR-1 and PAR-4 in the brain: localization, expression and participation in neurodegenerative diseases. AU - Sokolova,Elena, AU - Reiser,Georg, PY - 2008/10/9/pubmed PY - 2008/12/17/medline PY - 2008/10/9/entrez SP - 576 EP - 81 JF - Thrombosis and haemostasis JO - Thromb Haemost VL - 100 IS - 4 N2 - Emerging evidence demonstrates that thrombin exerts physiological and pathological functions in the central nervous system. Both prothrombin and its active form thrombin have been detected locally in the brain. The cellular functions of thrombin are mainly regulated by G protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PARs). Thrombin can signal via PAR-1, PAR-3 and PAR-4. Some neurological diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease) are characterized by increased levels of both active thrombin and PAR-1. This indicates that thrombin and its receptor may be closely involved in the development of neurodegenerative processes. The role of thrombin in brain injury can be either protective or deleterious, depending on the concentration of thrombin. Thrombin at high concentrations exacerbates brain damage. In contrast, low concentrations of thrombin rescue neural cells from death after brain insults. Also thrombin preconditioning has neuroprotective effects. Therefore, thrombin and thrombin receptors represent novel therapeutic targets for treating neurodegenerative diseases. SN - 0340-6245 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18841278/Prothrombin/thrombin_and_the_thrombin_receptors_PAR_1_and_PAR_4_in_the_brain:_localization_expression_and_participation_in_neurodegenerative_diseases_ L2 - http://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/6006 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -