Leishmania infection can hamper immune recovery in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients.New Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 31(3):435-8.NM
An HIV-infected patient started combination antiretroviral therapy with 13 CD4+ cells/microL. Despite sustained virological suppression over the following four years, the anemia did not resolve, and the CD4+ cell counts always remained below 200/microL until co-infection with Leishmania was diagnosed in October 2006 when the patient started complaining of persistent mild fever and asthenia. Once treatment for leishmaniasis was started with miltefosine, CD4+ cell count rose above 400/microL. A new drop in CD4+ cell count was observed when Leishmania DNA turned out again to be positive, but treatment with liposomal amphotericin-B restored immune recovery.