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Direct determinations of the fatty acid composition of daily dietary intakes incorporating nutraceuticals and functional food strategies to increase n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids.
J Am Coll Nutr 2008; 27(5):538-46JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

North American diets are low in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA). This investigation aims to assess the ability to increase EPA and DHA in the Canadian diet using traditional whole food, functional food or nutraceutical strategies.

METHODS

A typical Canadian diet (TC) was compared to four diets enriched with EPA and DHA but with similar caloric and macronutrient composition: a nutraceutical fish oil capsule diet (FO), an EPA + DHA-enriched functional foods diet (ED), a traditional whole foods (fish) diet (TW) and a comprehensive diet combining fish with functional foods (FF) containing EPA + DHA and alpha-linolenic acid. Direct biochemical quantitations were performed for energy, protein, carbohydrate (proximate analysis) and fat (gas chromatography). Costs of each diet and EPA + DHA source were assessed.

RESULTS

The FO (1.03 +/- 0.01 g EPA + DHA), ED (0.59 +/- 0.02 g), TW (3.23 +/- 0.09 g) and FF (3.15 +/- 0.06 g) diets provided significantly higher amounts of EPA + DHA compared to the TC diet (0.08 +/- 0.01 g). Using the TC diet as a baseline, the daily cost increase for each revised diet was $0.53 (FO), $0.82 (TW), $0.93 (ED) and $1.62 (FF). The cost per gram of EPA + DHA was lowest for fish oil nutraceuticals ($0.53/g), followed by fish (approximately $1.05/g).

CONCLUSIONS

The EPA and DHA content of daily diets can be increased significantly and cost effectively using nutraceuticals, functional foods and whole foods. Several North American EPA + DHA recommendations for healthy individuals can be met using these strategies and American Heart Association recommendations for secondary coronary heart disease prevention can be met via traditional whole food, nutraceutical or combination approaches.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory of Nutritional & Nutraceutical Research, Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18845703

Citation

Patterson, Ashley C., and Ken D. Stark. "Direct Determinations of the Fatty Acid Composition of Daily Dietary Intakes Incorporating Nutraceuticals and Functional Food Strategies to Increase N-3 Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids." Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 5, 2008, pp. 538-46.
Patterson AC, Stark KD. Direct determinations of the fatty acid composition of daily dietary intakes incorporating nutraceuticals and functional food strategies to increase n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008;27(5):538-46.
Patterson, A. C., & Stark, K. D. (2008). Direct determinations of the fatty acid composition of daily dietary intakes incorporating nutraceuticals and functional food strategies to increase n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 27(5), pp. 538-46.
Patterson AC, Stark KD. Direct Determinations of the Fatty Acid Composition of Daily Dietary Intakes Incorporating Nutraceuticals and Functional Food Strategies to Increase N-3 Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008;27(5):538-46. PubMed PMID: 18845703.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Direct determinations of the fatty acid composition of daily dietary intakes incorporating nutraceuticals and functional food strategies to increase n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids. AU - Patterson,Ashley C, AU - Stark,Ken D, PY - 2008/10/11/pubmed PY - 2009/1/9/medline PY - 2008/10/11/entrez SP - 538 EP - 46 JF - Journal of the American College of Nutrition JO - J Am Coll Nutr VL - 27 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: North American diets are low in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA). This investigation aims to assess the ability to increase EPA and DHA in the Canadian diet using traditional whole food, functional food or nutraceutical strategies. METHODS: A typical Canadian diet (TC) was compared to four diets enriched with EPA and DHA but with similar caloric and macronutrient composition: a nutraceutical fish oil capsule diet (FO), an EPA + DHA-enriched functional foods diet (ED), a traditional whole foods (fish) diet (TW) and a comprehensive diet combining fish with functional foods (FF) containing EPA + DHA and alpha-linolenic acid. Direct biochemical quantitations were performed for energy, protein, carbohydrate (proximate analysis) and fat (gas chromatography). Costs of each diet and EPA + DHA source were assessed. RESULTS: The FO (1.03 +/- 0.01 g EPA + DHA), ED (0.59 +/- 0.02 g), TW (3.23 +/- 0.09 g) and FF (3.15 +/- 0.06 g) diets provided significantly higher amounts of EPA + DHA compared to the TC diet (0.08 +/- 0.01 g). Using the TC diet as a baseline, the daily cost increase for each revised diet was $0.53 (FO), $0.82 (TW), $0.93 (ED) and $1.62 (FF). The cost per gram of EPA + DHA was lowest for fish oil nutraceuticals ($0.53/g), followed by fish (approximately $1.05/g). CONCLUSIONS: The EPA and DHA content of daily diets can be increased significantly and cost effectively using nutraceuticals, functional foods and whole foods. Several North American EPA + DHA recommendations for healthy individuals can be met using these strategies and American Heart Association recommendations for secondary coronary heart disease prevention can be met via traditional whole food, nutraceutical or combination approaches. SN - 1541-1087 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18845703/Direct_determinations_of_the_fatty_acid_composition_of_daily_dietary_intakes_incorporating_nutraceuticals_and_functional_food_strategies_to_increase_n_3_highly_unsaturated_fatty_acids_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07315724.2008.10719736 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -