CD14 impairs host defense against gram-negative sepsis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in mice.J Infect Dis. 2008 Nov 01; 198(9):1388-97.JI
CD14 is a pattern-recognition receptor that can facilitate the presentation of bacterial components to either Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or TLR4. We have recently shown that during melioidosis, a severe infection caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, TLR2 but not TLR4 impacts the immune response of the intact host in vivo.
The function of CD14 in melioidosis was analyzed by means of in vitro and in vivo approaches, using wild-type (WT) and CD14 knockout (KO) mice.
CD14-deficient macrophages and whole blood leukocytes released less tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on stimulation with B. pseudomallei or B. pseudomallei lipopolysaccharide in vitro, compared with WT cells. Strikingly, CD14 KO mice intranasally inoculated with B. pseudomallei demonstrated reduced lethality and significantly decreased bacterial outgrowth, compared with WT mice. Administration of recombinant soluble CD14 to CD14 KO mice partially reversed their phenotype to that of WT mice. Lastly, CD14 deficiency did not alter the capacity of macrophages or neutrophils to phagocytose or kill B. pseudomallei.
CD14 is crucially involved in the recognition of B. pseudomallei by innate immune cells but plays a remarkable detrimental role in the host response against B. pseudomallei. Inhibition of CD14 may be a novel treatment strategy in melioidosis.