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The effect of exercise on water balance in premenopausal physically active women.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This controlled feeding study examined the effects of exercise on daily water intake (particularly ad libitum water intake), water output, whole-body water balance, and hydration status in physically active, premenopausal women.

DESIGN

The randomized crossover design consisted of three 8-day trials: placebo and no exercise, placebo and exercise (1-hour cycling bout per day at 65%-70% of heart rate reserve), and 800 mg calcium supplementation and exercise. During each trial, controlled quantities of the same foods and beverages were provided and ad libitum water intake was quantified. Water input included measured water from foods and beverages, measured ad libitum intake, and estimated metabolic production. Water output included measured losses in urine and stool, and estimated insensible losses from respiration and non-sweating perspiration (insensible diffusion through the skin).

SUBJECTS

Participants were 26 women, age 25+/-5 years, body mass index 22+/-2, and VO(2peak) 43+/-6 mLxkg(-1)xmin(-1) (mean+/-standard deviation).

RESULTS

Ad libitum water intake was 363 g/day more (P<0.05) for the placebo and exercise (1,940+/-654 g/day) and calcium supplementation and exercise (1,935+/-668 g/day) trials, compared with placebo and no exercise trial (1,575+/-667 g/day), and total water input was correspondingly higher in placebo and exercise and calcium supplementation and exercise trials compared with the placebo and no exercise trial. Urine, stool, and total water outputs were not different among trials. Apparent net water balance (representative of sweat water output) was 367 g/day more (P<0.05) in placebo and exercise (679+/-427 g/day) and calcium supplementation and exercise (641+/-519 g/day) trials compared with placebo and no exercise trial (293+/-419 g/day). Hydration status was clinically normal during all three trials. Calcium supplementation did not influence water balance.

CONCLUSION

These results support that young, physically active women can completely compensate for exercise-induced sweat losses by increasing ad libitum water intake, and not decreasing non-sweat water outputs or impairing hydration status.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

    , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Body Water
    Calcium, Dietary
    Cross-Over Studies
    Dietary Supplements
    Drinking
    Exercise
    Feces
    Female
    Heart Rate
    Humans
    Muscle, Skeletal
    Oxygen Consumption
    Premenopause
    Sweating
    Urinalysis
    Water-Electrolyte Balance

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    18926131

    Citation

    Weinheimer, Eileen M., et al. "The Effect of Exercise On Water Balance in Premenopausal Physically Active Women." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 108, no. 10, 2008, pp. 1662-7.
    Weinheimer EM, Martin BR, Weaver CM, et al. The effect of exercise on water balance in premenopausal physically active women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(10):1662-7.
    Weinheimer, E. M., Martin, B. R., Weaver, C. M., Welch, J. M., & Campbell, W. W. (2008). The effect of exercise on water balance in premenopausal physically active women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(10), pp. 1662-7. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.07.014.
    Weinheimer EM, et al. The Effect of Exercise On Water Balance in Premenopausal Physically Active Women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(10):1662-7. PubMed PMID: 18926131.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of exercise on water balance in premenopausal physically active women. AU - Weinheimer,Eileen M, AU - Martin,Berdine R, AU - Weaver,Connie M, AU - Welch,Jo M, AU - Campbell,Wayne W, PY - 2007/12/11/received PY - 2008/03/14/accepted PY - 2008/10/18/pubmed PY - 2008/11/14/medline PY - 2008/10/18/entrez SP - 1662 EP - 7 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 108 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVE: This controlled feeding study examined the effects of exercise on daily water intake (particularly ad libitum water intake), water output, whole-body water balance, and hydration status in physically active, premenopausal women. DESIGN: The randomized crossover design consisted of three 8-day trials: placebo and no exercise, placebo and exercise (1-hour cycling bout per day at 65%-70% of heart rate reserve), and 800 mg calcium supplementation and exercise. During each trial, controlled quantities of the same foods and beverages were provided and ad libitum water intake was quantified. Water input included measured water from foods and beverages, measured ad libitum intake, and estimated metabolic production. Water output included measured losses in urine and stool, and estimated insensible losses from respiration and non-sweating perspiration (insensible diffusion through the skin). SUBJECTS: Participants were 26 women, age 25+/-5 years, body mass index 22+/-2, and VO(2peak) 43+/-6 mLxkg(-1)xmin(-1) (mean+/-standard deviation). RESULTS: Ad libitum water intake was 363 g/day more (P<0.05) for the placebo and exercise (1,940+/-654 g/day) and calcium supplementation and exercise (1,935+/-668 g/day) trials, compared with placebo and no exercise trial (1,575+/-667 g/day), and total water input was correspondingly higher in placebo and exercise and calcium supplementation and exercise trials compared with the placebo and no exercise trial. Urine, stool, and total water outputs were not different among trials. Apparent net water balance (representative of sweat water output) was 367 g/day more (P<0.05) in placebo and exercise (679+/-427 g/day) and calcium supplementation and exercise (641+/-519 g/day) trials compared with placebo and no exercise trial (293+/-419 g/day). Hydration status was clinically normal during all three trials. Calcium supplementation did not influence water balance. CONCLUSION: These results support that young, physically active women can completely compensate for exercise-induced sweat losses by increasing ad libitum water intake, and not decreasing non-sweat water outputs or impairing hydration status. SN - 0002-8223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18926131/The_effect_of_exercise_on_water_balance_in_premenopausal_physically_active_women_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(08)01411-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -