Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in urban Pakistan (Karachi): comparison of newly proposed International Diabetes Federation and modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria.Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009 Apr; 7(2):119-24.MS
The clustering of central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia known as metabolic syndrome has been associated with a two- to three-fold increase in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is recognized that the features of the metabolic syndrome can be present 10 years preceding T2DM and CVD. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 25 years and older from an urban population of Karachi, Pakistan, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition and modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. This study involved a survey conducted from July, 2004, to December, 2004, by generating a computerized random sample of households in Lyari Town using a geographical imaging system (GIS). Out of the 85,520 households, 532 households were randomly selected and 867 adults > or =25 years old consented to take part in the survey; 363 of these subjects gave blood samples. The prevalence of diabetes was 9.4%, whereas 5.6% had impaired fasting glucose (abnormal glucose tolerance 15%). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the IDF definition and modified ATP III criteria was 34.8% and 49%, respectively. Inclusion of modified waist circumference and specific body mass index (BMI) cut offs for Asians may help predict metabolic syndrome at an early stage. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome was identified irrespective of the definition applied in this population. This may call for immediate action to halt the accelerating risk of diabetes and CVD that would lead to a possible unparalleled rise in the cost of health care and human suffering.