Aripiprazole in children and adolescents with Tourette disorder with and without explosive outbursts.J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2008 Oct; 18(5):509-15.JC
We conducted a retrospective, observational study of aripiprazole for the treatment of tics and/or co-morbid explosive outbursts in 37 children and adolescents with Tourette disorder (TD).
Thirty seven children and adolescents with TD, with and without explosive outbursts, and refractory to previous treatment were treated at one of two university affiliated specialty clinics. All diagnoses were made using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria. Tic severity was rated using the Clinical Global Impressions Scale for tics (CGI-Tics) and frequency of explosive outbursts was assessed using the CGI-Rage; both measures were obtained at pretreatment baseline and at posttreatment follow up.
High rates of psychiatric co-morbidity were observed in these subjects: 31 of 37 (84%) subjects met criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 31 of 37 (84%) met criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty nine of 37 (78%) subjects met criteria for intermittent explosive disorder (IED) minus criterion C; the remaining 8 subjects had TD only. Eight subjects (22%) discontinued treatment before 12 weeks due to inability to tolerate the drug. At follow up, tics reduced at a mean daily dose of 12.3 (7.50) mg in 29 of 29 (100%) subjects who completed the study, and explosive outbursts improved in 24/25 subjects (96%) who completed the study. Aripiprazole was tolerated reasonably well, although 8/37 (22%) subjects discontinued treatment; most common side effects included weight gain, akathisia, and sedation.
Aripiprazole should be investigated further as a treatment option for TD with and without co-morbid explosive outbursts.