Applications of Brazilian pine-fruit shell in natural and carbonized forms as adsorbents to removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions--kinetic and equilibrium study.J Hazard Mater. 2009 May 30; 164(2-3):1213-22.JH
The Brazilian pine-fruit shell (Araucaria angustifolia) is a food residue, which was used in natural and carbonized forms, as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Chemical treatment of Brazilian pine-fruit shell (PW), with sulfuric acid produced a non-activated carbonaceous material (C-PW). Both PW and C-PW were tested as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of MB from aqueous effluents. It was observed that C-PW leaded to a remarkable increase in the specific surface area, average porous volume, and average porous diameter of the adsorbent when compared to PW. The effects of shaking time, adsorbent dosage and pH on adsorption capacity were studied. In basic pH region (pH 8.5) the adsorption of MB was favorable. The contact time required to obtain the equilibrium was 6 and 4h at 25 degrees C, using PW and C-PW as adsorbents, respectively. Based on error function values (F(error)) the kinetic data were better fitted to fractionary-order kinetic model when compared to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and chemisorption kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. For MB dye the equilibrium data were better fitted to the Sips isotherm model using PW and C-PW as adsorbents.