Distribution and cardiovascular risk correlates of hemoglobin A(1c) in nondiabetic younger adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.Metabolism. 2008 Nov; 57(11):1487-92.M
Excess glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), an indicator of long-term glucose homeostasis, is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality even among persons without diabetes. However, information is scant regarding its distribution and correlates of CV risk in nondiabetic younger adults. This aspect was examined in a biracial (black-white) community-based sample of 1111 younger adults (mean age: 36.2 years; 71% white, 43% male) enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Blacks vs whites and women vs men had higher HbA(1c) values (P < .0001). In bivariate analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, and smoking status, significant adverse trends were noted for body mass index, waist circumference, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, insulin, glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance across HbA(1c) quartiles; trends were not significant for mean arterial blood pressure, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In multivariate analysis, besides race and sex, total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio and waist circumference were independent correlates of HbA(1c). Furthermore, the prevalence of excess (top decile) HbA(1c) was 1.6-fold (P < .05) higher among those with metabolic syndrome defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and 2.1-fold (P < .01) and 1.5-fold (P < .05) higher, respectively, among those with positive parental history of CV disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These findings underscore the potential value of HbA(1c) in risk assessments of CV disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in nondiabetic, apparently "healthy" younger adults.