Frequency of CCR5-Delta32 deletion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in healthy blood donors, HIV-1-exposed seronegative and HIV-1-seropositive individuals of southern Brazilian population.Int J Mol Med. 2008 Nov; 22(5):669-75.IJ
The frequency of CCR5-Delta32 allele in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the southern Brazilian population was determined in a cross-sectional study carried out from October 2001 to June 2004. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells of 134 healthy blood donors, 145 HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals, 152 HIV-1-seropositive asymptomatic individuals, and 478 HIV-1-seropositive individuals with AIDS. A fragment with 225 base-pairs of the CCR5 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The CCR5-Delta32 homozygous deletion was observed in 2 (1.5%) blood donors and in 1 (0.7%) individual HIV-1-exposed seronegative, and was absent among all the HIV-1-seropositive individuals (Fisher's exact test, p=0.0242). The frequency of the homozygous CCR5-Delta32 deletion in the HIV-1-exposed did not differ when compared with that observed in the HIV-1 seronegative blood donors (Fisher's exact test, p=0.6093; OR: 2.18, 95% CI: 0.11-129.6). The wild-type genotype CCR5/CCR5 frequency was higher among the HIV-1-seropositive with AIDS compared to HIV-1 seropositive asymptomatic individuals (Chi-square test, p=0.0263; OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.03-3.97). The absence of the homozygous deletion of CCR5-Delta32 among HIV-1-seropositive individuals underscored that this genotype is an important genetic factor associated with the decreased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The higher frequency of heterozygosity for the CCR5-Delta32 and the CCR5-Delta32 allele in HIV-1 seropositive asymptomatic compared to HIV-seropositive with AIDS individuals also underscored that this deletion could be associated with the delay of the HIV-1 disease progression in this population. However, the low frequency of CCR5-Delta32 homozygosity observed among HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals shows that the allele could not explain, by itself, the natural resistance to HIV-1 infection and different mechanisms of protection against HIV-1 infection that must be involved in this population.