A unique mutation of ALK2, G356D, found in a patient with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a moderately activated BMP type I receptor.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Dec 19; 377(3):905-9.BB
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal dominant congenital disorder characterized by progressive heterotopic bone formation in muscle tissues. A common mutation among FOP patients has been identified in ALK2, ALK2(R206H), which encodes a constitutively active bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor. Recently, a unique mutation of ALK2, ALK2(G356D), was identified to be a novel mutation in a Japanese FOP patient who had unique clinical features. Over-expression of ALK2(G356D) induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and activated Id1-luc and alkaline phosphatase activity in myoblasts. However, the over-expression failed to activate phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2, and CAGA-luc activity. These ALK2(G356D) activities were weaker than those of ALK2(R206H), and they were suppressed by a specific inhibitor of the BMP-regulated Smad pathway. These findings suggest that ALK2(G356D) induces heterotopic bone formation via activation of a BMP-regulated Smad pathway. The quantitative difference between ALK2(G356D) and ALK2(R206H) activities may have caused the phenotypic differences in these patients.