Genetic resistance of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Trypanoplasma borreli: influence of transferrin polymorphisms.Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009 Jan 15; 127(1-2):19-25.VI
In serum most of the iron molecules are bound to transferrin (Tf), which is a highly polymorphic protein in fish. Tf is an essential growth factor for mammalian trypanosomes. We performed a series of experiments with Trypanoplasma borreli to detect putative correlations between different Tf genotypes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and susceptibility to this blood parasite. Five genetically different, commercially exploited carp lines (Israelian 'D', Polish 'R2' and 'K', Ukrainian 'Ur', Hungarian 'R0') and a reference laboratory cross ('R3xR8') were challenged with T. borreli and parasitaemia measured to determine susceptibility to the parasite. Among the commercial carp lines, Israelian 'D' carp were identified as most and Polish 'R2' carp as least susceptible, and used to produce a next generation and reciprocal crosses. These progenies were challenged with T. borreli and parasitaemia measured. We demonstrated significant effects of genetic background of the carp lines on susceptibility to T. borreli. This genetic effect was preserved in a next generation. We also observed a significant male effect on susceptibility to T. borreli in the reciprocal crosses. Serum samples from a representative number of fish from two infection experiments were used for Tf genotyping by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), identifying DD, DG and DF as most frequent Tf genotypes. We could detect a significant association of the homozygous DD genotype with low parasitaemia in the least susceptible 'R2' (and 'K') carp lines and the lack of a such an association in the most susceptible 'D' carp line. Upon examination of parasite growth in vitro in culture media supplemented with 3% serum taken from fish with different Tf genotypes, we could show a faster decrease in number of parasites in culture media with serum from DD-typed animals.