[Transportal variceal sclerotherapy with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for gastric fundal varices].Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2008 Oct; 16(10):776-80.ZG
To evaluate the technique, safety and clinical efficacy of transportal variceal sclerotherapy with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for gastric fundal varices.
Twenty-one patients with gastric fundal varices confirmed by endoscopy were enrolled in this study. The causes of the gastric varices were cirrhosis caused by hepatitis virus B or C (n = 16) and hepatocellular carcinoma with portal venous obstruction (n = 5). Percutaneous transhepatic or transplenic portography were performed on all 21 patients. The gastric varices were treated with NBCA-lipiodol mixture injected via a microcatheter introduced into the varices. For 8 patients who had large gastrorenal shunts (GRS), a balloon-occluded catheter was introduced into the GRS via the right femoral and left renal veins before injecting the NBCA-lipiodol. During the NBCA-lipiodol injection, the balloon was inflated to block the flow of GRS. Follow-up evaluations included findings of the laboratory liver function tests, upper intestinal endoscopies, and the occurrences of rebleeding.
In 20 patients (95.2%), the gastric varices were successfully obliterated with 2-8 ml of NBCA-lipiodol. In one patient with a large GRS, sclerotherapy was not successfully performed because a balloon-occluded catheter was not available during the procedure. In five patients, small amounts of NBCA-lipiodol entered into the distal pulmonary artery branches. Two of them suffered from transient irritable coughs; no patient developed severe pulmonary embolism. Embolization of portal venous branches occurred in two patients, which were not treated specifically. In comparison with the findings before the treatments, the serum alanine aminotransferase levels decreased at both 3 and 6 months after treatments (P less than 0.05); serum albumin levels increased at 6 months (P less than 0.05); the prothrombin times decreased at 6 months (P less than 0.05); but no significant changes were seen in the serum bilirubin levels. Fifteen patients were followed-up endoscopically for 3 months after the treatment. Gastric varices were completely resolved in 10 patients (66.7%) and were markedly smaller in 4 patients (26.6%). Worsening of the esophageal varices occurred in 3 patients (20%). All the patients were followed-up from 1 to 30 months [(16.7+/-8.8) months]. Rebleeding was observed in 4 patients, and the cumulative rebleeding rate at 1 year was 9.52%.
Transportal variceal sclerotherapy with NBCA is a safe and effective method for treating gastric varices. Microcatheter technique and occlusion of the large gastrorenal shunt with a balloon-occluded catheter are necessary to ensure obliteration of gastric varices and prevent pulmonary embolism.