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Grandparental and parental obesity influences on childhood overweight: implications for primary care practice.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Community-based studies have suggested a multigenerational pattern of obesity affecting children's risk of overweight, but no national data have substantiated such a pattern. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of overweight [body mass index (BMI) >or=95th percentile for age and sex] among children aged 5 to 19 in a national sample, stratified by the obesity status of their parents and grandparents.

METHODS

We used a secondary analysis of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Child Development Supplement, a multigenerational, genealogical, prospective cohort study of the US population. Self-report height and weight data from adults and measured height and weight data for children were used to calculate BMI. The prevalence of child overweight was calculated for different possible combinations of parental and grandparental BMI status, including missing status.

RESULTS

The sample included 2,591 children aged 5 to 19 years, for whom parental BMI data were available for 94% and grandparental BMI data were available for 61%. Prevalence of childhood overweight (18.6%) in the sample was comparable with contemporaneous measured national data from other sources. Among children with normal-weight parents and normal-weight grandparents, 7.9% were overweight. In contrast, among children with overweight parents (BMI 25-29.9) and normal-weight grandparents, 17.9% were overweight, and among children with obese parents (BMI >or=30) and normal-weight grandparents, 31.9% were overweight (P < .0001). Importantly, when parents were normal weight, if grandparents were obese, then the prevalence of child overweight was 17.4% (P < .0001). The prevalence of child overweight was similarly elevated (16.4%) when parents were normal weight and grandparental BMI was missing.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first national study to find an association of child weight status with grandparental obesity, distinct from parental obesity. Primary care physicians may find it helpful to consider grandparents' weight status in judging risk of childhood overweight for their patients, especially when parents' weight is normal.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Child Health Evaluation and Research Unit, Division of General Pediatrics, and the Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5456, USA. mattdav@med.umich.edu

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Body Mass Index
    Child
    Child Welfare
    Child, Preschool
    Family Practice
    Female
    Humans
    Intergenerational Relations
    Male
    Michigan
    Nutrition Surveys
    Obesity
    Overweight
    Parents
    Prevalence
    Primary Health Care
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    18988722

    Citation

    Davis, Matthew M., et al. "Grandparental and Parental Obesity Influences On Childhood Overweight: Implications for Primary Care Practice." Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine : JABFM, vol. 21, no. 6, 2008, pp. 549-54.
    Davis MM, McGonagle K, Schoeni RF, et al. Grandparental and parental obesity influences on childhood overweight: implications for primary care practice. J Am Board Fam Med. 2008;21(6):549-54.
    Davis, M. M., McGonagle, K., Schoeni, R. F., & Stafford, F. (2008). Grandparental and parental obesity influences on childhood overweight: implications for primary care practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine : JABFM, 21(6), pp. 549-54. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2008.06.070140.
    Davis MM, et al. Grandparental and Parental Obesity Influences On Childhood Overweight: Implications for Primary Care Practice. J Am Board Fam Med. 2008;21(6):549-54. PubMed PMID: 18988722.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Grandparental and parental obesity influences on childhood overweight: implications for primary care practice. AU - Davis,Matthew M, AU - McGonagle,Katherine, AU - Schoeni,Robert F, AU - Stafford,Frank, PY - 2008/11/8/pubmed PY - 2009/2/12/medline PY - 2008/11/8/entrez SP - 549 EP - 54 JF - Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine : JABFM JO - J Am Board Fam Med VL - 21 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Community-based studies have suggested a multigenerational pattern of obesity affecting children's risk of overweight, but no national data have substantiated such a pattern. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of overweight [body mass index (BMI) >or=95th percentile for age and sex] among children aged 5 to 19 in a national sample, stratified by the obesity status of their parents and grandparents. METHODS: We used a secondary analysis of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Child Development Supplement, a multigenerational, genealogical, prospective cohort study of the US population. Self-report height and weight data from adults and measured height and weight data for children were used to calculate BMI. The prevalence of child overweight was calculated for different possible combinations of parental and grandparental BMI status, including missing status. RESULTS: The sample included 2,591 children aged 5 to 19 years, for whom parental BMI data were available for 94% and grandparental BMI data were available for 61%. Prevalence of childhood overweight (18.6%) in the sample was comparable with contemporaneous measured national data from other sources. Among children with normal-weight parents and normal-weight grandparents, 7.9% were overweight. In contrast, among children with overweight parents (BMI 25-29.9) and normal-weight grandparents, 17.9% were overweight, and among children with obese parents (BMI >or=30) and normal-weight grandparents, 31.9% were overweight (P < .0001). Importantly, when parents were normal weight, if grandparents were obese, then the prevalence of child overweight was 17.4% (P < .0001). The prevalence of child overweight was similarly elevated (16.4%) when parents were normal weight and grandparental BMI was missing. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first national study to find an association of child weight status with grandparental obesity, distinct from parental obesity. Primary care physicians may find it helpful to consider grandparents' weight status in judging risk of childhood overweight for their patients, especially when parents' weight is normal. SN - 1557-2625 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18988722/Grandparental_and_parental_obesity_influences_on_childhood_overweight:_implications_for_primary_care_practice_ L2 - http://www.jabfm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=18988722 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -