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Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Nov 11; 105(45):17442-6.PN

Abstract

Ocean acidification represents a key threat to coral reefs by reducing the calcification rate of framework builders. In addition, acidification is likely to affect the relationship between corals and their symbiotic dinoflagellates and the productivity of this association. However, little is known about how acidification impacts on the physiology of reef builders and how acidification interacts with warming. Here, we report on an 8-week study that compared bleaching, productivity, and calcification responses of crustose coralline algae (CCA) and branching (Acropora) and massive (Porites) coral species in response to acidification and warming. Using a 30-tank experimental system, we manipulated CO(2) levels to simulate doubling and three- to fourfold increases [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projection categories IV and VI] relative to present-day levels under cool and warm scenarios. Results indicated that high CO(2) is a bleaching agent for corals and CCA under high irradiance, acting synergistically with warming to lower thermal bleaching thresholds. We propose that CO(2) induces bleaching via its impact on photoprotective mechanisms of the photosystems. Overall, acidification impacted more strongly on bleaching and productivity than on calcification. Interestingly, the intermediate, warm CO(2) scenario led to a 30% increase in productivity in Acropora, whereas high CO(2) lead to zero productivity in both corals. CCA were most sensitive to acidification, with high CO(2) leading to negative productivity and high rates of net dissolution. Our findings suggest that sensitive reef-building species such as CCA may be pushed beyond their thresholds for growth and survival within the next few decades whereas corals will show delayed and mixed responses.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Marine Studies, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072 Queensland, Australia. k.anthony@uq.edu.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18988740

Citation

Anthony, K R N., et al. "Ocean Acidification Causes Bleaching and Productivity Loss in Coral Reef Builders." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 45, 2008, pp. 17442-6.
Anthony KR, Kline DI, Diaz-Pulido G, et al. Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105(45):17442-6.
Anthony, K. R., Kline, D. I., Diaz-Pulido, G., Dove, S., & Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2008). Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(45), 17442-6. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0804478105
Anthony KR, et al. Ocean Acidification Causes Bleaching and Productivity Loss in Coral Reef Builders. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008 Nov 11;105(45):17442-6. PubMed PMID: 18988740.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. AU - Anthony,K R N, AU - Kline,D I, AU - Diaz-Pulido,G, AU - Dove,S, AU - Hoegh-Guldberg,O, Y1 - 2008/11/06/ PY - 2008/11/8/pubmed PY - 2008/12/24/medline PY - 2008/11/8/entrez SP - 17442 EP - 6 JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America JO - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. VL - 105 IS - 45 N2 - Ocean acidification represents a key threat to coral reefs by reducing the calcification rate of framework builders. In addition, acidification is likely to affect the relationship between corals and their symbiotic dinoflagellates and the productivity of this association. However, little is known about how acidification impacts on the physiology of reef builders and how acidification interacts with warming. Here, we report on an 8-week study that compared bleaching, productivity, and calcification responses of crustose coralline algae (CCA) and branching (Acropora) and massive (Porites) coral species in response to acidification and warming. Using a 30-tank experimental system, we manipulated CO(2) levels to simulate doubling and three- to fourfold increases [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projection categories IV and VI] relative to present-day levels under cool and warm scenarios. Results indicated that high CO(2) is a bleaching agent for corals and CCA under high irradiance, acting synergistically with warming to lower thermal bleaching thresholds. We propose that CO(2) induces bleaching via its impact on photoprotective mechanisms of the photosystems. Overall, acidification impacted more strongly on bleaching and productivity than on calcification. Interestingly, the intermediate, warm CO(2) scenario led to a 30% increase in productivity in Acropora, whereas high CO(2) lead to zero productivity in both corals. CCA were most sensitive to acidification, with high CO(2) leading to negative productivity and high rates of net dissolution. Our findings suggest that sensitive reef-building species such as CCA may be pushed beyond their thresholds for growth and survival within the next few decades whereas corals will show delayed and mixed responses. SN - 1091-6490 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18988740/Ocean_acidification_causes_bleaching_and_productivity_loss_in_coral_reef_builders_ L2 - http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18988740 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -