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Epidemiology of risk factors and symptoms associated with menopause in Spanish women.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

(1) To assess the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease and the prevalence and severity of the appearance of menopausal symptoms among Spanish menopausal women. (2) To identify the main factors responsible for this severity. (3) To detect symptom differences between perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

METHODS

Cross-sectional descriptive study encompassing women aged 45-65 years in the whole Spanish territory. The study population sample was collected through random sampling. A total of 10,514 women were included. The sociodemographic, medical history and lifestyle data were assessed by means of a survey. The Kupperman scale was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms.

RESULTS

The prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease were 67.6% and 74.8%, respectively. The most common risk factors were physical inactivity (53.6%), obesity (44.3%), arterial hypertension (36.6%), hypercholesterolemia (31.4%), low calcium intake (30.1%) and smoking (28.7%). The predominant symptoms experienced by menopausal women were hot flushes (51.4%), insomnia (45.7%) and irritability (42.2%). These were severe in 3.3% of the sample, moderate in 27.3%, mild in 24.6% while 44.8% had no symptoms. The prevalence of joint pain (40.1%) and depressive mood (40%) was higher in perimenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Logistic regression analysis showed that there were differences for age, BMI, smoking, social class and poor consumption of dairy products in the severity of menopausal symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS

A high prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease was observed in our study. The main factors contributing to more severe menopausal symptoms were age, BMI, smoking social class and poor consumption of dairy products. In general, postmenopausal women presented significantly higher rates of menopausal symptoms when compared to perimenopausal women.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Primary Health Centre Guadalajara-Sur, Guadalajara, Spain. jmartinezp@semergen.es

    , ,

    Source

    Maturitas 62:1 2009 Jan 20 pg 30-6

    MeSH

    Aged
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Depression
    Female
    Health Surveys
    Hot Flashes
    Humans
    Menopause
    Middle Aged
    Osteoporosis
    Prevalence
    Risk Factors
    Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
    Spain

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19010615

    Citation

    Pérez, José Antonio Martínez, et al. "Epidemiology of Risk Factors and Symptoms Associated With Menopause in Spanish Women." Maturitas, vol. 62, no. 1, 2009, pp. 30-6.
    Pérez JA, Garcia FC, Palacios S, et al. Epidemiology of risk factors and symptoms associated with menopause in Spanish women. Maturitas. 2009;62(1):30-6.
    Pérez, J. A., Garcia, F. C., Palacios, S., & Pérez, M. (2009). Epidemiology of risk factors and symptoms associated with menopause in Spanish women. Maturitas, 62(1), pp. 30-6. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2008.10.003.
    Pérez JA, et al. Epidemiology of Risk Factors and Symptoms Associated With Menopause in Spanish Women. Maturitas. 2009 Jan 20;62(1):30-6. PubMed PMID: 19010615.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Epidemiology of risk factors and symptoms associated with menopause in Spanish women. AU - Pérez,José Antonio Martínez, AU - Garcia,Felipe Chavida, AU - Palacios,Santiago, AU - Pérez,Maite, Y1 - 2008/11/17/ PY - 2008/05/01/received PY - 2008/09/29/revised PY - 2008/10/01/accepted PY - 2008/11/18/pubmed PY - 2009/4/15/medline PY - 2008/11/18/entrez SP - 30 EP - 6 JF - Maturitas JO - Maturitas VL - 62 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease and the prevalence and severity of the appearance of menopausal symptoms among Spanish menopausal women. (2) To identify the main factors responsible for this severity. (3) To detect symptom differences between perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study encompassing women aged 45-65 years in the whole Spanish territory. The study population sample was collected through random sampling. A total of 10,514 women were included. The sociodemographic, medical history and lifestyle data were assessed by means of a survey. The Kupperman scale was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms. RESULTS: The prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease were 67.6% and 74.8%, respectively. The most common risk factors were physical inactivity (53.6%), obesity (44.3%), arterial hypertension (36.6%), hypercholesterolemia (31.4%), low calcium intake (30.1%) and smoking (28.7%). The predominant symptoms experienced by menopausal women were hot flushes (51.4%), insomnia (45.7%) and irritability (42.2%). These were severe in 3.3% of the sample, moderate in 27.3%, mild in 24.6% while 44.8% had no symptoms. The prevalence of joint pain (40.1%) and depressive mood (40%) was higher in perimenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Logistic regression analysis showed that there were differences for age, BMI, smoking, social class and poor consumption of dairy products in the severity of menopausal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease was observed in our study. The main factors contributing to more severe menopausal symptoms were age, BMI, smoking social class and poor consumption of dairy products. In general, postmenopausal women presented significantly higher rates of menopausal symptoms when compared to perimenopausal women. SN - 0378-5122 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19010615/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-5122(08)00265-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -