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Hypospadias and intake of nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism.
J Urol 2009; 181(1):315-21; discussion 321JU

Abstract

PURPOSE

We examined whether hypospadias is associated with maternal intake of folic acid containing vitamin/mineral supplements or dietary intake of nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism (folate, choline, vitamins B12 and B6, thiamine, riboflavin, methionine and zinc).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study included births from October 1997 to December 2003 that were part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire during maternal telephone interviews. Analyses included 915 cases with second or third degree hypospadias (urethra opened at the penile shaft, scrotum or perineum) and 2,266 male, liveborn, nonmalformed controls. All ORs and 95% CIs were estimated from logistic regression models that included several potential confounders. Nutrient based analyses also included energy intake.

RESULTS

Hypospadias risk was not associated with supplement use (adjusted ORs were 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6 for intake beginning in the month before or the first month of pregnancy and 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.4 for intake beginning in the second or third month, relative to no intake). Among women who took supplements reduced hypospadias risk was associated with higher dietary intakes of choline, methionine and vitamin B12. The respective ORs (CIs) for the highest vs lowest quartiles were 0.7 (0.5-1.1), 0.6 (0.4-0.9) and 0.7 (0.5-1.0). Among women who did not take supplements increased risk of hypospadias was associated with higher vitamin B12 intake. The OR (CI) for the highest vs lowest quartile was 3.1 (1.1-9.0).

CONCLUSIONS

This study suggests an association of hypospadias with intake of certain nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism.

Authors+Show Affiliations

California Research Division, March of Dimes Foundation, Oakland, California, USA. scarmichael@marchofdimes.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19013591

Citation

Carmichael, Suzan L., et al. "Hypospadias and Intake of Nutrients Related to One-carbon Metabolism." The Journal of Urology, vol. 181, no. 1, 2009, pp. 315-21; discussion 321.
Carmichael SL, Yang W, Correa A, et al. Hypospadias and intake of nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism. J Urol. 2009;181(1):315-21; discussion 321.
Carmichael, S. L., Yang, W., Correa, A., Olney, R. S., & Shaw, G. M. (2009). Hypospadias and intake of nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism. The Journal of Urology, 181(1), pp. 315-21; discussion 321. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2008.09.041.
Carmichael SL, et al. Hypospadias and Intake of Nutrients Related to One-carbon Metabolism. J Urol. 2009;181(1):315-21; discussion 321. PubMed PMID: 19013591.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hypospadias and intake of nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism. AU - Carmichael,Suzan L, AU - Yang,Wei, AU - Correa,Adolfo, AU - Olney,Richard S, AU - Shaw,Gary M, AU - ,, Y1 - 2008/11/14/ PY - 2008/06/13/received PY - 2008/11/18/entrez PY - 2008/11/18/pubmed PY - 2009/1/28/medline SP - 315-21; discussion 321 JF - The Journal of urology JO - J. Urol. VL - 181 IS - 1 N2 - PURPOSE: We examined whether hypospadias is associated with maternal intake of folic acid containing vitamin/mineral supplements or dietary intake of nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism (folate, choline, vitamins B12 and B6, thiamine, riboflavin, methionine and zinc). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included births from October 1997 to December 2003 that were part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire during maternal telephone interviews. Analyses included 915 cases with second or third degree hypospadias (urethra opened at the penile shaft, scrotum or perineum) and 2,266 male, liveborn, nonmalformed controls. All ORs and 95% CIs were estimated from logistic regression models that included several potential confounders. Nutrient based analyses also included energy intake. RESULTS: Hypospadias risk was not associated with supplement use (adjusted ORs were 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6 for intake beginning in the month before or the first month of pregnancy and 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.4 for intake beginning in the second or third month, relative to no intake). Among women who took supplements reduced hypospadias risk was associated with higher dietary intakes of choline, methionine and vitamin B12. The respective ORs (CIs) for the highest vs lowest quartiles were 0.7 (0.5-1.1), 0.6 (0.4-0.9) and 0.7 (0.5-1.0). Among women who did not take supplements increased risk of hypospadias was associated with higher vitamin B12 intake. The OR (CI) for the highest vs lowest quartile was 3.1 (1.1-9.0). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests an association of hypospadias with intake of certain nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism. SN - 1527-3792 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19013591/Hypospadias_and_intake_of_nutrients_related_to_one_carbon_metabolism_ L2 - https://www.jurology.com/doi/full/10.1016/j.juro.2008.09.041?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -