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Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity.

Abstract

Because of its high prevalence and the associated medical and psychosocial risks, research into the causes of childhood obesity has experienced a tremendous upswing. Formal genetic data based on twin, adoption, and family studies lead to the conclusion that at least 50% of the interindividual variance of the body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is due to genetic factors. As a result of the recent advent of genome-wide association studies, the first polygenes involved in body weight regulation have been detected. Each of the predisposing alleles explain a few hundred grams of body weight. More polygenes will be detected in the near future, thus for the first time allowing in-depth analyses of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. They also will enable developmental studies to assess the effect of such alleles throughout childhood and adulthood. The recent increase in obesity prevalence rates illustrates the extreme relevance of environmental factors for body weight. Similar to polygenes, the effect sizes of most such environmental factors are likely to be small, thus rendering their detection difficult. In addition, the validation of the true causality of such factors is not a straightforward task. Important factors are socioeconomic status and television consumption. The authors conclude by briefly assessing implications for treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Rheinische Kliniken Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Virchowstr, 174, D-45147 Essen, Germany.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19014859

Citation

Hebebrand, Johannes, and Anke Hinney. "Environmental and Genetic Risk Factors in Obesity." Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 18, no. 1, 2009, pp. 83-94.
Hebebrand J, Hinney A. Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2009;18(1):83-94.
Hebebrand, J., & Hinney, A. (2009). Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18(1), pp. 83-94. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2008.07.006.
Hebebrand J, Hinney A. Environmental and Genetic Risk Factors in Obesity. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2009;18(1):83-94. PubMed PMID: 19014859.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity. AU - Hebebrand,Johannes, AU - Hinney,Anke, PY - 2008/11/19/pubmed PY - 2009/3/12/medline PY - 2008/11/19/entrez SP - 83 EP - 94 JF - Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America JO - Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am VL - 18 IS - 1 N2 - Because of its high prevalence and the associated medical and psychosocial risks, research into the causes of childhood obesity has experienced a tremendous upswing. Formal genetic data based on twin, adoption, and family studies lead to the conclusion that at least 50% of the interindividual variance of the body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is due to genetic factors. As a result of the recent advent of genome-wide association studies, the first polygenes involved in body weight regulation have been detected. Each of the predisposing alleles explain a few hundred grams of body weight. More polygenes will be detected in the near future, thus for the first time allowing in-depth analyses of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. They also will enable developmental studies to assess the effect of such alleles throughout childhood and adulthood. The recent increase in obesity prevalence rates illustrates the extreme relevance of environmental factors for body weight. Similar to polygenes, the effect sizes of most such environmental factors are likely to be small, thus rendering their detection difficult. In addition, the validation of the true causality of such factors is not a straightforward task. Important factors are socioeconomic status and television consumption. The authors conclude by briefly assessing implications for treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. SN - 1558-0490 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19014859/Environmental_and_genetic_risk_factors_in_obesity_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1056-4993(08)00054-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -