[Arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anti-platelet aggregation. Goal oriented treatment].Nefrologia. 2008; 28 Suppl 3:39-48.N
TREATMENT OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION - Blood pressure (BP) should be regularly measured in all patients with CKD (Strength of Recommendation C). - BP control and proteinuria reduction delay progression of CKD (Strength of Recommendation A) and reduce cardiovascular risk (Strength of Recommendation C). Thus, control of both factors should be the treatment objective. - The BP target in patients with CKD should be < 130/80 mmHg, and 125/75 mmHg if proteinuria is > 1 g/24 hours (Strength of Recommendation A). - Lifestyle changes should be made: low-sodium diet (less than 100 mEq/day of sodium or 2.4 g/day of salt); weight reduction if patient is overweight (body mass index 20-25 kg/m2); regular aerobic physical exercise and moderate alcohol intake for BP control and prevention of cardiovascular risk (Strength of Recommendation A). - The choice of the antihypertensive drug in patients with CKD depends on the etiology of CKD, cardiovascular risk, or presence of clinical or subclinical cardiovascular disease (Strength of Recommendation A). - Two or more antihypertensive drugs are usually required to control blood pressure in patients with CKD (Strength of Recommendation B), and will frequently include a diuretic, which in stages 4-5 should be a loop diuretic (Strength of Recommendation B). - Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are first choice drugs in patients with diabetic nephropathy, patients with non-diabetic nephropathy with a protein/creatinine ratio higher than 200 mg/g, and patients with heart failure (Strength of Recommendation A). The combination of ACEIs and ARBs is indicated for reducing proteinuria that remains high despite treatment with a RAAS inhibitor, provided potassium levels do not exceed 5.5 mEq/L (Strength of Recommendation B). - When RAAS blockers are started or their dose is changed in patients with advanced CKD, kidney function and serum potassium levels should be monitored at least after 1-2 weeks. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA - A complete evaluation of the lipid profile including total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides should be performed in any patient with CKD at baseline and at least annually (Strength of Recommendation B). - In patients with stage 4-5 CKD and LDL-C >or= 100 mg/dL, treatment to decrease levels to < 100 mg/dL should be considered because of their high CV risk. This reduction is recommended in secondary prevention and in primary prevention in diabetic patients. Lipid-lowering treatment is recommended in all other patients, although no evidence showing its benefits is available yet (Strength of Recommendation C). - In patients with stage 4-5 CKD and triglyceride levels >or= 500 mg/dL which are not corrected by treating the underlying cases, treatment with triglyceride-lowering drugs may be considered to reduce the risk of pancreatitis. However, treatment with fibrates should be used with caution, and these drugs should not be associated to statins due to the risk of rhabdomyolysis (Strength of Recommendation C). There is little experience on the efficacy and safety of omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in patients with grade 4-5 CRF, but they may be considered a possibly safer alternative to fibrates (Strength of Recommendation C). SMOKING - Smoking is a cardiovascular risk factor and a risk factor for progression of kidney disease in patients with CRF (Strength of Recommendation B). - Use of active measures to achieve smoking cessation is recommended in patients with CRF (Strength of Recommendation C). HOMOCYSTEINE - Hyperhomocysteinemia has been postulated as a cardiovascular risk factor in the general population and in kidney patients, but the available evidence is not consistent. - There is no evidence that vitamin therapy decreases cardiovascular risk in patients with CRF, and recommendation of routine vitamin measurement and start of vitamin therapy to reduce cardiovascular risk in these patients is therefore questionable (Strength of Recommendation B). LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY - Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with CRF (Strength of Recommendation B). - It is advisable to perform an echocardiogram at baseline and every 12-24 months and to consider treatments allowing for LVH regression (Strength of Recommendation C). The approach to LVH should be early and multifactorial because its reversibility is limited once established (Strength of Recommendation C). - RAAS blockade with ACEIs or ARBs partially reverts LVH in patients with CRF (Strength of Recommendation B). ANTI-PLATELET AGGREGATION - Because of the high cardiovascular risk in patients with CKD, anti-platelet aggregant therapy, especially low-dose aspirin, would be indicated in patients with type 2 diabetes as primary prevention, and in all patients with CKD as secondary prevention. There is however no evidence of the benefits of anti-platelet aggregant therapy in primary prevention in patients with CKD, particularly in stages 4-5; indication for treatment in this situation should therefore be individualised because of its greater risk of bleeding. - Adequate good blood pressure control should previously be achieved to minimise the risk of haemorrhagic stroke (Strength of Recommendation C).