Transvenous embolization with a combination of detachable coils and Onyx for a complicated cavernous dural arteriovenous fistula.Chin Med J (Engl). 2008 Sep 05; 121(17):1651-5.CM
Treatment of cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) is usually made by a transarterial approach. However, in many complicated patients, treatments via transarterial approaches can not be achieved, and only an operation via a transvenous approach is feasible. We aimed to study the feasibility of transarterial embolization of cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas with a combination detachable coils and Onyx to embolize a complicated cavernous DAVF via a transvenous approach.
From August 2006 to August 2007, six cases of complicated cavernous DAVF were embolized with a combination of detachable coils and Onyx via a transvenous approach. Three cases were male and the other three were female. Their ages ranged from 36 to 69 years old. The fistula was in the right lateral cavernous sinus in one case, in the left lateral cavernous sinus in another, and in the bilateral cavernous sinus in 4 cases. One fistula was fed by the right internal carotid artery and its meningohypophyseal trunk; one was fed by the branches of the left internal carotid artery and left external carotid artery; four were fed by the branches of the bilateral internal carotid artery and/or the bilateral external carotid artery. One case was drained via one lateral inferior petrosal sinus; three were drained via bilateral inferior petrosal sinuses; one was drained via one lateral ophthalmic and facial veins; one was drained via the inferior petrosal sinus and the ophthalmic and facial veins. Four were embolized via the inferior petrosal sinus, and two were embolized via the ophthalmic and facial veins.
Among six cases of complicated cavernous DAVF, four were fully embolized with Onyx by a single operation, and two cases were fully embolized with Onyx following two operations. Transient headache was found after operation in all patients, but was cured after several days by the symptomatic treatments. In one case, the first operation via the inferior petrosal sinus was a failure; the feeding branches of the external carotid artery were embolized, and transient facial palsy was appeared after operation. The fistula was fully embolized with Onyx via the inferior petrosal sinus after two months with no complications. One bilateral cavernous sinus DAVF was embolized with Onyx via the inferior petrosal sinus by two operations, and transient abducens nerve palsy occurred after embolization.
Because Onyx may be injected via a transvenous approach and the microcatheter is easily withdrawn, cavernous sinus via transvenous catheterization and embolization is a safe and efficient way to treat complicated cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas, especially those for which operations via transarterial approaches have failed, or spontaneous cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas.