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Fat, protein, and meat consumption and renal cell cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Results of several case-control studies suggest that high consumption of meat (all meat, red meat, or processed meat) is associated with an increased risk of renal cell cancer, but only a few prospective studies have examined the associations of intakes of meat, fat, and protein with renal cell cancer.

METHODS

We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies that included 530,469 women and 244,483 men and had follow-up times of up to 7-20 years to examine associations between meat, fat, and protein intakes and the risk of renal cell cancer. All participants had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at study entry. Using the primary data from each study, we calculated the study-specific relative risks (RRs) for renal cell cancer by using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled these RRs by using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS

A total of 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer were identified (709 in women and 769 in men). We observed statistically significant positive associations or trends in pooled age-adjusted models for intakes of total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, total protein, and animal protein. However, these associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjusting for body mass index, fruit and vegetable intake, and alcohol intake. For example, the pooled age-adjusted RR of renal cell cancer for the highest vs the lowest quintile of intake for total fat was 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.56; P(trend) = .001) and for total protein was 1.17 (95% CI = 0.99 to 1.38; P(trend) = .02). By comparison, the pooled multivariable RR for the highest vs the lowest quintile of total fat intake was 1.10 (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.32; P(trend) = .31) and of total protein intake was 1.06 (95% CI = 0.89 to 1.26; P(trend) = .37). Intakes of red meat, processed meat, poultry, or seafood were not associated with the risk of renal cell cancer.

CONCLUSIONS

Intakes of fat and protein or their subtypes, red meat, processed meat, poultry, and seafood are not associated with risk of renal cell cancer.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. jung.lee@channing.harvard.edu

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    Source

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 100:23 2008 Dec 03 pg 1695-706

    MeSH

    Alcohol Drinking
    Body Mass Index
    Carcinoma, Renal Cell
    Cholesterol, Dietary
    Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
    Dietary Proteins
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Fruit
    Humans
    Kidney Neoplasms
    Male
    Meat
    Multivariate Analysis
    Nutrition Surveys
    Odds Ratio
    Proportional Hazards Models
    Prospective Studies
    Research Design
    Risk Assessment
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    United States
    Vegetables

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19033572

    Citation

    Lee, Jung Eun, et al. "Fat, Protein, and Meat Consumption and Renal Cell Cancer Risk: a Pooled Analysis of 13 Prospective Studies." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 100, no. 23, 2008, pp. 1695-706.
    Lee JE, Spiegelman D, Hunter DJ, et al. Fat, protein, and meat consumption and renal cell cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100(23):1695-706.
    Lee, J. E., Spiegelman, D., Hunter, D. J., Albanes, D., Bernstein, L., van den Brandt, P. A., ... Smith-Warner, S. A. (2008). Fat, protein, and meat consumption and renal cell cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 100(23), pp. 1695-706. doi:10.1093/jnci/djn386.
    Lee JE, et al. Fat, Protein, and Meat Consumption and Renal Cell Cancer Risk: a Pooled Analysis of 13 Prospective Studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Dec 3;100(23):1695-706. PubMed PMID: 19033572.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Fat, protein, and meat consumption and renal cell cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies. AU - Lee,Jung Eun, AU - Spiegelman,Donna, AU - Hunter,David J, AU - Albanes,Demetrius, AU - Bernstein,Leslie, AU - van den Brandt,Piet A, AU - Buring,Julie E, AU - Cho,Eunyoung, AU - English,Dallas R, AU - Freudenheim,Jo L, AU - Giles,Graham G, AU - Graham,Saxon, AU - Horn-Ross,Pamela L, AU - Håkansson,Niclas, AU - Leitzmann,Michael F, AU - Männistö,Satu, AU - McCullough,Marjorie L, AU - Miller,Anthony B, AU - Parker,Alexander S, AU - Rohan,Thomas E, AU - Schatzkin,Arthur, AU - Schouten,Leo J, AU - Sweeney,Carol, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Wolk,Alicja, AU - Zhang,Shumin M, AU - Smith-Warner,Stephanie A, Y1 - 2008/11/25/ PY - 2008/11/27/pubmed PY - 2009/1/6/medline PY - 2008/11/27/entrez SP - 1695 EP - 706 JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute JO - J. Natl. Cancer Inst. VL - 100 IS - 23 N2 - BACKGROUND: Results of several case-control studies suggest that high consumption of meat (all meat, red meat, or processed meat) is associated with an increased risk of renal cell cancer, but only a few prospective studies have examined the associations of intakes of meat, fat, and protein with renal cell cancer. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies that included 530,469 women and 244,483 men and had follow-up times of up to 7-20 years to examine associations between meat, fat, and protein intakes and the risk of renal cell cancer. All participants had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at study entry. Using the primary data from each study, we calculated the study-specific relative risks (RRs) for renal cell cancer by using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled these RRs by using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: A total of 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer were identified (709 in women and 769 in men). We observed statistically significant positive associations or trends in pooled age-adjusted models for intakes of total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, total protein, and animal protein. However, these associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjusting for body mass index, fruit and vegetable intake, and alcohol intake. For example, the pooled age-adjusted RR of renal cell cancer for the highest vs the lowest quintile of intake for total fat was 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.56; P(trend) = .001) and for total protein was 1.17 (95% CI = 0.99 to 1.38; P(trend) = .02). By comparison, the pooled multivariable RR for the highest vs the lowest quintile of total fat intake was 1.10 (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.32; P(trend) = .31) and of total protein intake was 1.06 (95% CI = 0.89 to 1.26; P(trend) = .37). Intakes of red meat, processed meat, poultry, or seafood were not associated with the risk of renal cell cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of fat and protein or their subtypes, red meat, processed meat, poultry, and seafood are not associated with risk of renal cell cancer. SN - 1460-2105 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19033572/Fat_protein_and_meat_consumption_and_renal_cell_cancer_risk:_a_pooled_analysis_of_13_prospective_studies_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jnci/djn386 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -