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Pathological effects of sodium hypochlorite administration through drinking water in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica).
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2008 Oct; 27(10):773-80.HE

Abstract

Fifty male Japanese quails of 40 days of age were divided into five equal groups viz. A, B, C, D, and E. Drinking water supplemented with sodium hypochlorite at dose level of 0, 25, 50, 200, and 400 mg chlorine/L, respectively was offered for 6 weeks. At the end of week 6 when no clinical signs of toxicity of sodium hypochlorite appeared, the birds in groups B and C were shifted to 100 mg chlorine/L drinking water, and this level was increased fourfold (400, 1600, 6400 mg chlorine/L drinking water) every week, till i.e., 10th week (70 day). Afterwards all the birds were killed. Depression and anorexia were prominent clinical signs observed. Reduction in feed intake, body weight, and hematological parameters appeared in a dose-dependant manner. Decreased serum total proteins and weights of liver, heart, and kidneys were recorded in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. Intoxicated birds were emaciated. Decreased weight and volume of the testes were observed in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. However, birds receiving 400 mg chlorine (group E) had smaller but functional testes. Birds receiving higher level of chlorine (groups B and C) had decreased weight and volume of testes, atrophied seminiferous tubules, and arrested spermatogenesis. It was concluded that sodium hypochlorite at high levels, that is, 6400 mg/L in drinking water is toxic to the quails; therefore, it should be used with caution in poultry farming as drinking water disinfectant.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. ahrar1122@yahoo.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19042964

Citation

Khan, A, et al. "Pathological Effects of Sodium Hypochlorite Administration Through Drinking Water in Male Japanese Quails (Coturnix Japonica)." Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 27, no. 10, 2008, pp. 773-80.
Khan A, Ullah M, Khan M. Pathological effects of sodium hypochlorite administration through drinking water in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). Hum Exp Toxicol. 2008;27(10):773-80.
Khan, A., Ullah, M., & Khan, M. (2008). Pathological effects of sodium hypochlorite administration through drinking water in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). Human & Experimental Toxicology, 27(10), 773-80. https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327108097435
Khan A, Ullah M, Khan M. Pathological Effects of Sodium Hypochlorite Administration Through Drinking Water in Male Japanese Quails (Coturnix Japonica). Hum Exp Toxicol. 2008;27(10):773-80. PubMed PMID: 19042964.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pathological effects of sodium hypochlorite administration through drinking water in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). AU - Khan,A, AU - Ullah,M, AU - Khan,Mz, PY - 2008/12/2/pubmed PY - 2009/2/25/medline PY - 2008/12/2/entrez SP - 773 EP - 80 JF - Human & experimental toxicology JO - Hum Exp Toxicol VL - 27 IS - 10 N2 - Fifty male Japanese quails of 40 days of age were divided into five equal groups viz. A, B, C, D, and E. Drinking water supplemented with sodium hypochlorite at dose level of 0, 25, 50, 200, and 400 mg chlorine/L, respectively was offered for 6 weeks. At the end of week 6 when no clinical signs of toxicity of sodium hypochlorite appeared, the birds in groups B and C were shifted to 100 mg chlorine/L drinking water, and this level was increased fourfold (400, 1600, 6400 mg chlorine/L drinking water) every week, till i.e., 10th week (70 day). Afterwards all the birds were killed. Depression and anorexia were prominent clinical signs observed. Reduction in feed intake, body weight, and hematological parameters appeared in a dose-dependant manner. Decreased serum total proteins and weights of liver, heart, and kidneys were recorded in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. Intoxicated birds were emaciated. Decreased weight and volume of the testes were observed in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. However, birds receiving 400 mg chlorine (group E) had smaller but functional testes. Birds receiving higher level of chlorine (groups B and C) had decreased weight and volume of testes, atrophied seminiferous tubules, and arrested spermatogenesis. It was concluded that sodium hypochlorite at high levels, that is, 6400 mg/L in drinking water is toxic to the quails; therefore, it should be used with caution in poultry farming as drinking water disinfectant. SN - 0960-3271 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19042964/Pathological_effects_of_sodium_hypochlorite_administration_through_drinking_water_in_male_Japanese_quails__Coturnix_japonica__ L2 - http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0960327108097435?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -