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Childhood IQ and adult mental disorders: a test of the cognitive reserve hypothesis.
Am J Psychiatry. 2009 Jan; 166(1):50-7.AJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Cognitive reserve has been proposed as important in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, tests of the association between premorbid IQ and adult mental disorders other than schizophrenia have been limited and inconclusive. The authors tested the hypothesis that low childhood IQ is associated with increased risk and severity of adult mental disorders.

METHOD

Participants were members of a representative 1972-1973 birth cohort of 1,037 males and females in Dunedin, New Zealand, who were followed up to age 32 with 96% retention. WISC-R IQ was assessed at ages 7, 9, and 11. Research diagnoses of DSM mental disorders were made at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32.

RESULTS

Lower childhood IQ was associated with increased risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorder, adult depression, and adult anxiety. Lower childhood IQ was also associated with greater comorbidity and with persistence of depression; the association with persistence of generalized anxiety disorder was nearly significant. Higher childhood IQ predicted increased risk of adult mania.

CONCLUSIONS

Lower cognitive reserve, as reflected by childhood IQ, is an antecedent of several common psychiatric disorders and also predicts persistence and comorbidity. Thus, many patients who seek mental health treatment may have lower cognitive ability; this should be considered in prevention and treatment planning.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Kresge 613, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA. kkoenen@hsph.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19047325

Citation

Koenen, Karestan C., et al. "Childhood IQ and Adult Mental Disorders: a Test of the Cognitive Reserve Hypothesis." The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 166, no. 1, 2009, pp. 50-7.
Koenen KC, Moffitt TE, Roberts AL, et al. Childhood IQ and adult mental disorders: a test of the cognitive reserve hypothesis. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166(1):50-7.
Koenen, K. C., Moffitt, T. E., Roberts, A. L., Martin, L. T., Kubzansky, L., Harrington, H., Poulton, R., & Caspi, A. (2009). Childhood IQ and adult mental disorders: a test of the cognitive reserve hypothesis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(1), 50-7. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08030343
Koenen KC, et al. Childhood IQ and Adult Mental Disorders: a Test of the Cognitive Reserve Hypothesis. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166(1):50-7. PubMed PMID: 19047325.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Childhood IQ and adult mental disorders: a test of the cognitive reserve hypothesis. AU - Koenen,Karestan C, AU - Moffitt,Terrie E, AU - Roberts,Andrea L, AU - Martin,Laurie T, AU - Kubzansky,Laura, AU - Harrington,HonaLee, AU - Poulton,Richie, AU - Caspi,Avshalom, Y1 - 2008/12/01/ PY - 2008/12/3/pubmed PY - 2009/3/3/medline PY - 2008/12/3/entrez SP - 50 EP - 7 JF - The American journal of psychiatry JO - Am J Psychiatry VL - 166 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve has been proposed as important in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, tests of the association between premorbid IQ and adult mental disorders other than schizophrenia have been limited and inconclusive. The authors tested the hypothesis that low childhood IQ is associated with increased risk and severity of adult mental disorders. METHOD: Participants were members of a representative 1972-1973 birth cohort of 1,037 males and females in Dunedin, New Zealand, who were followed up to age 32 with 96% retention. WISC-R IQ was assessed at ages 7, 9, and 11. Research diagnoses of DSM mental disorders were made at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32. RESULTS: Lower childhood IQ was associated with increased risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorder, adult depression, and adult anxiety. Lower childhood IQ was also associated with greater comorbidity and with persistence of depression; the association with persistence of generalized anxiety disorder was nearly significant. Higher childhood IQ predicted increased risk of adult mania. CONCLUSIONS: Lower cognitive reserve, as reflected by childhood IQ, is an antecedent of several common psychiatric disorders and also predicts persistence and comorbidity. Thus, many patients who seek mental health treatment may have lower cognitive ability; this should be considered in prevention and treatment planning. SN - 1535-7228 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19047325/Childhood_IQ_and_adult_mental_disorders:_a_test_of_the_cognitive_reserve_hypothesis_ L2 - https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08030343?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -