Interosseous nerve transfers for tibialis anterior muscle paralysis (foot drop): a human cadaver-based feasibility study.J Reconstr Microsurg. 2009 Mar; 25(3):203-11.JR
This study explored the anatomical feasibility of using an interosseous nerve transfer (routed between the tibia and fibula) to restore motor function to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, following injury to the common peroneal nerve (resulting in a foot drop). The specific nerve branches evaluated as possible donor nerves included the nerves to the medial gastrocnemius, the lateral gastrocnemius, and the soleus muscles. All nerve transfers were accomplished using a direct interosseous route and a direct repair (one medial gastrocnemius transfer did require interpositional grafting). The distance from the repair site to the TA muscle was shortest for the transfer using the nerve branch to the soleus. Histologically, the nerve branch to the soleus was most similar to the branch to the TA for both axonal count and cross-sectional area. A two-incision surgical approach using a fibular window (mobilizing a fibular segment after double osteotomy) and interosseous routing of the transfer is proposed.