Association of the protein Z ATG haplotype with symptomatic nonvascular stroke or thromboembolism in white children: a family-based cohort study.Blood. 2009 Mar 05; 113(10):2336-41.Blood
To clarify the role of protein Z (PZ) in children with stroke/thromboembolism (TE), the present haplotype (HT)-based family study was performed. We genotyped 365 pediatric stroke/TE families (stroke n = 216; TE n = 149) for 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs3024718, rs3024731, rs3024772, and rs3024778) to assess the association between genetic variation within a conserved block of linkage disequilibrium harboring the PZ gene and pediatric TE. Association was assessed with use of the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), corrected for multiple testing (permutation testing: HAPLOVIEW). In addition, PZ antigen was determined and correlated with carriership of PZ haplotypes and the FV G1691A mutation. Rs3024718, rs3024731, and rs3024772 are in tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) and define 4 haplotypes, capturing 97% of the genetic variation for this LD block. HT1 (ATG) was significantly overtransmitted from parents to affected offspring (HT frequency 73.5%, T:U 122:80, chi(2) = 8.791, P = .003). The ATG risk haplotype was significantly correlated with greater PZ antigen levels. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, established thrombophilias, smoking, fibrinogen, and PZ levels revealed a significant association of the ATG haplotype and TE in children (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.08-1.93). Our results suggest that the ATG haplotype of the PZ gene is a genetic marker for symptomatic TE in white German children.