Clinical spectrum and medical treatment of children with electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES).Epilepsia. 2009 Jun; 50(6):1517-24.E
To describe the clinical spectrum and to evaluate the efficacy of different therapeutic agents in children with electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES).
Clinical data of all patients with ESES (not including patients with Landau-Kleffner syndrome) in four pediatric neurology outpatient clinics were analyzed. Thirty patients with ESES had been treated between 1994 and 2007.
Eleven (37%) children had benign partial epilepsies of childhood, five (17%) had cerebral palsy, five (17%) had hydrocephalus, one (3%) had schizencephaly, one (3%) had prenatal parenchymal bleeding, and the etiology was unclear in seven (23%). The duration of ESES ranged between 2 and 60 months. The antiepileptic drugs that were found to be efficacious were: levetiracetam (41%), clobazam (31%), and sulthiame (17%). Valproic acid, lamotrigine, topiramate, and ethosuximide showed no efficacy. Steroids were efficacious in 65%; immunoglobulins were efficacious in 33%. High-dose diazepam was efficacious in 37%, but all the children had temporary response. Seventeen patients (57%) had cognitive deterioration, whereas the rest presented with regression in attention, speech, communication, and behavior. Fourteen children had permanent cognitive deficit. There was a significant correlation (p = 0.029) between the duration of ESES and residual intellectual deficit at follow-up.
ESES reflects an evolution of benign partial epilepsy of childhood in more than one-third of the patients, whereas there is an underlying structural brain anomaly in another one-third. The most efficacious antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are levetiracetam and clobazam. The duration of ESES correlated significantly with residual intellectual deficit at follow-up.