Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH). A retrospective clinical study in Greek children. II. Possible medical aetiological factors.Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2008 Dec; 9(4):207-17.EA
This was to examine the potential medical aetiological factors involved in the development of MIH.
During the years 2003--2005, all MIH cases diagnosed according to set criteria were selected from the new patients clinic of a Community Dental Centre for Children (Athens). The age, gender and teeth involved were recorded. A control group of socio-demographically matched controls was also identified. The potential aetiological factors were retrieved through personal interview with the parents and from each child and mother's medical book. Only verified aetiological factors were recorded. Evaluation of the correlation of affected teeth and the timing of the insult was performed in a separate group of 225 affected children aged 8-12 with their entire 12 'index' teeth erupted.
From the 3,518, 5.5 to 12 years old children examined, 360 (10.2%) had MIH. Aetiology of MIH: 44 children (12.2%), presented without any relevant medical history, the remaining 316 (87.8%) recorded various medical problems associated with MIH, compared with 18.9% for controls. Perinatal (163, 33.6%) and postnatal (162, 33.9%) problems were the most frequently found and prenatal the least (33, 8.6%). For 42 children (11.7%) problems occurred in more than one chronological period, mainly during both the perinatal and postnatal period (11.1%). The most common prenatal problem was repeated episodes of high fever (12/33), in the perinatal period birth by Caesarean section (92/163) and other birth complications (34/163). Various respiratory conditions (88/162), repeated episodes of high fever (31/162) and neonatal illness (28/162) were the commonly reported problems in the postnatal period. Many MIH cases presented with more than one medical problem during the peri-and postnatal period.
Children with MIH recorded 68.9% more frequent medical problems than controls (p<0.0001). A positive correlation (p<0.001) between the total number and type of affected teeth with the timing of the insult was observed in the 225 MIH children with all their 'index' teeth erupted.
Children with MIH present with more medical problems than controls during their prenatal, perinatal and postnatal period. The majority of these illnesses may produce hypocalcaemia, hypoxia and pyrexia to the child or the mother. The number of affected teeth was associated with the timing of the possible insult; children with prenatal, perinatal and postnatal problems present more affected teeth in increasing order.