Metabolic stone composition in Egyptian children.J Pediatr Urol. 2009 Apr; 5(2):132-5.JP
The composition of urinary stones in children depends on socioeconomic conditions, geography and dietary habits. Pediatric urolithiasis remains endemic in developing countries. The aim of this study was to analyze stone composition in an Egyptian patient population.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
We analyzed prospectively urinary stones from 100 consecutive children (73 males, 27 females), aged 14 months to 12 years. The stones were located in the upper urinary tract in 78%, lower urinary tract in 19% and both in 3%. Male patients had more lower urinary tract stones. On presentation 67% had flank pain and 37% had hematuria. Stones were treated by open surgery in 69% of patients, shockwave lithotripsy in 20% and endoscopic extraction in 13%.
The components of the upper urinary tract calculi were calcium oxalate (47%), ammonium acid urate (26%) and calcium carbonate (21%), whereas the main components of the lower urinary tract calculi were ammonium acid urate (27.2%), struvite (27.2%) and calcium carbonate (22.7%). Urinary tract infection was involved in the development of one third of the stones. Endemic stones were present in 17% of patients, and stones of metabolic origin in 15%. The etiology of stone formation remained unknown in one third of patients.
The epidemiological profile of urinary stones in Egyptian children can now be considered intermediate between developing countries where dietary deficiencies are the main causes and developed countries where infectious and metabolic calculi are observed.