Role of nitric oxide and nuclear factor-kappaB in the CYP2E1 potentiation of tumor necrosis factor alpha hepatotoxicity in mice.Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Feb 15; 46(4):480-91.FR
Induction of CYP2E1 by pyrazole (PY) potentiated the hepatotoxicity induced by TNFalpha in mice. We evaluated the role of nitrosative and oxidative stress and the NF-kappaB activation pathway in this liver injury. The iNOS inhibitor N-(3-aminomethyl)benzylacetamindine (1400W) or the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) prevented this liver injury. TNFalpha plus PY treatment triggered radical stress in the liver with increased lipid peroxidation and decreased glutathione and caused mitochondrial damage as reflected by elevated membrane swelling and cytochrome c release. The radical stress and mitochondrial damage were prevented by 1400W and NAC. TNFalpha plus PY treatment elevated 3-nitrotyrosine adduct formation and induced NOS2 in the liver; 1400W and NAC blocked these changes. A lower extent of liver injury and oxidative stress was found in NOS2(-/-) mice treated with TNFalpha plus PY compared with wild-type controls. Neither 1400W nor NAC modified CYP2E1 activity or protein. Activation of JNK and p38MAPK was weaker in TNFalpha plus PY-treated NOS2(-/-) mice and 1400W and NAC blocked the activation of JNK and p38MAPK in wild-type mice. IKKalpha/beta protein levels were decreased by TNFalpha plus PY treatment, whereas IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta protein levels were elevated compared with saline, PY, or TNFalpha alone. NF-kappaB DNA binding activity was increased by TNFalpha alone but lowered by TNFalpha plus PY. All these changes were blocked by 1400W and NAC. NF-kappaB activation products such as Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), cFLIP(S), cFLIP(L), and Mn-SOD were reduced by TNFalpha plus PY and restored by 1400W or NAC. We conclude that TNFalpha plus CYP2E1 induces oxidative/nitrosative stress, which plays a role in the activation of JNK or p38MAPK and mitochondrial damage. These effects combine with the blunting of the NF-kappaB activation pathways and the synthesis of protective factors to cause liver injury.