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Unexplained decline in the prevalence of anemia among US children and women between 1988-1994 and 1999-2002.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec; 88(6):1611-7.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The current anemia burden among US preschool children and women of childbearing age has not been documented.

OBJECTIVE

We used data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1988-1994 and 1999-2002 to examine recent anemia changes.

DESIGN

We calculated the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11.0 g/dL at <24 mo, <11.1 g/dL at 24-59 mo, and <12.0 g/dL for women), iron deficiency anemia (anemia plus abnormal value >or=2: serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin), and high blood lead (>or=10 microg/dL) with anemia among children 12-59 mo and women 20-49 y in both surveys. Among women, we also calculated the prevalence of folate deficiency (erythrocyte folate < 317.2 nmol/L) with anemia and high C-reactive protein (>10 mg/L) with anemia. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare anemia prevalence between surveys, with control for race and age.

RESULTS

Anemia declined significantly in children (from 8.0% to 3.6%; OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.7) and women (10.8% to 6.9%; OR: 0.6; CI: 0.4, 0.7), but the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia did not change significantly in children (1.5% compared with 1.2%; OR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4, 1.5) or women (4.9% compared with 4.1%; OR: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.1). Folate deficiency with anemia declined significantly in women (from 4.1% to 0.5%; OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.2), but logistic regression models and standardization indicated that none of the known possible anemia causes could account for the decline in total anemia in children or women.

CONCLUSIONS

The prevalence of anemia declined significantly among US women and children between 1988-1994 and 1999-2002, but this decline was not associated with changes in iron or folate deficiency, inflammation, or high blood lead.

Authors+Show Affiliations

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, Atlanta, GA, USA. scusick@cdc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19064522

Citation

Cusick, Sarah E., et al. "Unexplained Decline in the Prevalence of Anemia Among US Children and Women Between 1988-1994 and 1999-2002." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 88, no. 6, 2008, pp. 1611-7.
Cusick SE, Mei Z, Freedman DS, et al. Unexplained decline in the prevalence of anemia among US children and women between 1988-1994 and 1999-2002. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(6):1611-7.
Cusick, S. E., Mei, Z., Freedman, D. S., Looker, A. C., Ogden, C. L., Gunter, E., & Cogswell, M. E. (2008). Unexplained decline in the prevalence of anemia among US children and women between 1988-1994 and 1999-2002. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88(6), 1611-7. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.25926
Cusick SE, et al. Unexplained Decline in the Prevalence of Anemia Among US Children and Women Between 1988-1994 and 1999-2002. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(6):1611-7. PubMed PMID: 19064522.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Unexplained decline in the prevalence of anemia among US children and women between 1988-1994 and 1999-2002. AU - Cusick,Sarah E, AU - Mei,Zuguo, AU - Freedman,David S, AU - Looker,Anne C, AU - Ogden,Cynthia L, AU - Gunter,Elaine, AU - Cogswell,Mary E, PY - 2008/12/10/pubmed PY - 2009/1/14/medline PY - 2008/12/10/entrez SP - 1611 EP - 7 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 88 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: The current anemia burden among US preschool children and women of childbearing age has not been documented. OBJECTIVE: We used data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1988-1994 and 1999-2002 to examine recent anemia changes. DESIGN: We calculated the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11.0 g/dL at <24 mo, <11.1 g/dL at 24-59 mo, and <12.0 g/dL for women), iron deficiency anemia (anemia plus abnormal value >or=2: serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin), and high blood lead (>or=10 microg/dL) with anemia among children 12-59 mo and women 20-49 y in both surveys. Among women, we also calculated the prevalence of folate deficiency (erythrocyte folate < 317.2 nmol/L) with anemia and high C-reactive protein (>10 mg/L) with anemia. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare anemia prevalence between surveys, with control for race and age. RESULTS: Anemia declined significantly in children (from 8.0% to 3.6%; OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.7) and women (10.8% to 6.9%; OR: 0.6; CI: 0.4, 0.7), but the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia did not change significantly in children (1.5% compared with 1.2%; OR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4, 1.5) or women (4.9% compared with 4.1%; OR: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.1). Folate deficiency with anemia declined significantly in women (from 4.1% to 0.5%; OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.2), but logistic regression models and standardization indicated that none of the known possible anemia causes could account for the decline in total anemia in children or women. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of anemia declined significantly among US women and children between 1988-1994 and 1999-2002, but this decline was not associated with changes in iron or folate deficiency, inflammation, or high blood lead. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19064522/Unexplained_decline_in_the_prevalence_of_anemia_among_US_children_and_women_between_1988_1994_and_1999_2002_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2008.25926 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -