Interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight in growing-finishing swine: II. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat.J Anim Sci. 2009 Apr; 87(4):1423-40.JA
Crossbred pigs (n=288) were used to test the interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight on the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat. Pigs were blocked by initial BW (28.1 kg), and, within blocks, pens (8 pigs/pen) were randomly assigned to either grower and finisher diets devoid of added fat (Ctrl) or diets formulated with 5% beef tallow (BT), poultry fat (PF), or soybean oil (SBO). Immediately after treatment allotment, as well as at mean block BW of 45.5, 68.1, 90.9, and 113.6 kg, 1 pig was randomly selected from each pen, slaughtered, and, within 1 h postmortem, samples of backfat were removed from each carcass between the 4th and 8th thoracic vertebra and separated into the inner, middle, and outer layers for fatty acid composition analysis. During the first 17.4 kg of BW gain, percentages of all SFA increased by more than 4% in subcutaneous fat of pigs fed the Ctrl and BT diets, but decreased by 4.4 and 7.7% in pigs fed the PF and SBO diets, respectively (fat source x slaughter weight, P<0.001). Proportions of all MUFA in subcutaneous fat from BT-fed pigs increased by 6.1% during the first 17.4 kg of BW gain, but MUFA percentages in SBO-fed pigs decreased by 9.1% between 28.1 and 45.5 kg (fat source x slaughter weight, P<0.001). Conversely, percentages of all PUFA from SBO-fed pigs increased by 39.9%, whereas PUFA concentrations in BT-fed pigs decreased by 12.6% as slaughter weight increased from 28.1 to 45.5 kg (fat source x slaughter weight, P<0.001). Resultant iodine values (IV) of subcutaneous fat from SBO-fed pigs increased (P<0.05) from 73.5 to 85.2 within the first 17.4 kg of BW gain, and remained elevated above those of their contemporaries fed the Ctrl, BT, or PF diets at each subsequent slaughter weight (fat source x slaughter weight, P<0.001). The inner backfat layer had the greatest (P<0.05) proportions of all SFA and the least (P<0.05) proportions of all PUFA, whereas the outer layer had the least (P<0.05) percentages of all SFA but the greatest (P<0.05) percentages of all MUFA. Even though the middle and outer subcutaneous fat layers had similar (P>0.05) PUFA percentages, the greatest (P<0.05) and least (P<0.05) IV were in the outer and middle layers, respectively. As expected, the fat source included in swine diets was responsible for the fatty acid compositional changes in subcutaneous fat, yet the results of this study indicate that feeding 5% SBO dramatically increased the polyunsaturation of subcutaneous fat within the first 17.4 kg of BW gain, with backfat IV exceeding 80 thereafter.