Effects of dietary selenium on the oxidative stress and pathological changes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a microcystin-producing cyanobacterial water bloom.Toxicon. 2009 Feb; 53(2):269-82.T
The present study investigates the role of selenium (Se) supplementation (as sodium selenite) on the oxidative stress and histopathological changes induced by cyanobacterial cells containing microcystins (MCs) in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). Variation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels and carbonyl groups content, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in liver and kidney of tilapia fish exposed to a single oral dose of 120 microg MC-LR/fish and sacrificed in 24 h, were investigated in the absence and presence of 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 microg Se/g diet. Results showed a protective role of Se depending on the dose and the biomarker considered. Thus, the lower Se dose made CAT, liver GR and kidney SOD converged to basal values, whereas LPO and liver SOD and GST needed the higher dose. Kidney GR, however, was not protected at any Se dose. Moreover, Se has also shown to have a pro-oxidant effect with increased kidney LPO values and liver and kidney GPx activities in MC-free fish. The microscopic study revealed tissue alterations induced by cyanobacterial cells in the liver, kidney, heart and gastrointestinal tract that were ameliorated by the highest Se dose assayed. The level of Se supplementation must be therefore carefully selected to provide beneficial effects and to avoid potential negative consequences.