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Expression of the endocannabinoid system in fibroblasts and myofascial tissues.

Abstract

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, like the better-known endorphin system, consists of cell membrane receptors, endogenous ligands and ligand-metabolizing enzymes. Two cannabinoid receptors are known: CB(1) is principally located in the nervous system, whereas CB(2) is primarily associated with the immune system. Two eCB ligands, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are mimicked by cannabis plant compounds. The first purpose of this paper was to review the eCB system in detail, highlighting aspects of interest to bodyworkers, especially eCB modulation of pain and inflammation. Evidence suggests the eCB system may help resolve myofascial trigger points and relieve symptoms of fibromyalgia. However, expression of the eCB system in myofascial tissues has not been established. The second purpose of this paper was to investigate the eCB system in fibroblasts and other fascia-related cells. The investigation used a bioinformatics approach, obtaining microarray data via the GEO database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). GEO data mining revealed that fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, chondrocytes and synoviocytes expressed CB(1), CB(2) and eCB ligand-metabolizing enzymes. Fibroblast CB(1) levels nearly equalled levels expressed by adipocytes. CB(1) levels upregulated after exposure to inflammatory cytokines and equiaxial stretching of fibroblasts. The eCB system affects fibroblast remodeling through lipid rafts associated with focal adhesions and dampens cartilage destruction by decreasing fibroblast-secreted metalloproteinase enzymes. In conclusion, the eCB system helps shape biodynamic embryological development, diminishes nociception and pain, reduces inflammation in myofascial tissues and plays a role in fascial reorganization. Practitioners wield several tools that upregulate eCB activity, including myofascial manipulation, diet and lifestyle modifications, and pharmaceutical approaches.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Department of Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. mcpruitt@verizon.net

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators
    Computational Biology
    Endocannabinoids
    Fibroblasts
    Humans
    Myofascial Pain Syndromes
    Nociceptors
    Receptors, Cannabinoid

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19083670

    Citation

    McPartland, John M.. "Expression of the Endocannabinoid System in Fibroblasts and Myofascial Tissues." Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, vol. 12, no. 2, 2008, pp. 169-82.
    McPartland JM. Expression of the endocannabinoid system in fibroblasts and myofascial tissues. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2008;12(2):169-82.
    McPartland, J. M. (2008). Expression of the endocannabinoid system in fibroblasts and myofascial tissues. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 12(2), pp. 169-82. doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2008.01.004.
    McPartland JM. Expression of the Endocannabinoid System in Fibroblasts and Myofascial Tissues. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2008;12(2):169-82. PubMed PMID: 19083670.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Expression of the endocannabinoid system in fibroblasts and myofascial tissues. A1 - McPartland,John M, Y1 - 2008/02/14/ PY - 2007/11/07/received PY - 2007/12/29/revised PY - 2008/01/08/accepted PY - 2008/12/17/entrez PY - 2008/12/17/pubmed PY - 2009/6/24/medline SP - 169 EP - 82 JF - Journal of bodywork and movement therapies JO - J Bodyw Mov Ther VL - 12 IS - 2 N2 - The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, like the better-known endorphin system, consists of cell membrane receptors, endogenous ligands and ligand-metabolizing enzymes. Two cannabinoid receptors are known: CB(1) is principally located in the nervous system, whereas CB(2) is primarily associated with the immune system. Two eCB ligands, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are mimicked by cannabis plant compounds. The first purpose of this paper was to review the eCB system in detail, highlighting aspects of interest to bodyworkers, especially eCB modulation of pain and inflammation. Evidence suggests the eCB system may help resolve myofascial trigger points and relieve symptoms of fibromyalgia. However, expression of the eCB system in myofascial tissues has not been established. The second purpose of this paper was to investigate the eCB system in fibroblasts and other fascia-related cells. The investigation used a bioinformatics approach, obtaining microarray data via the GEO database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). GEO data mining revealed that fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, chondrocytes and synoviocytes expressed CB(1), CB(2) and eCB ligand-metabolizing enzymes. Fibroblast CB(1) levels nearly equalled levels expressed by adipocytes. CB(1) levels upregulated after exposure to inflammatory cytokines and equiaxial stretching of fibroblasts. The eCB system affects fibroblast remodeling through lipid rafts associated with focal adhesions and dampens cartilage destruction by decreasing fibroblast-secreted metalloproteinase enzymes. In conclusion, the eCB system helps shape biodynamic embryological development, diminishes nociception and pain, reduces inflammation in myofascial tissues and plays a role in fascial reorganization. Practitioners wield several tools that upregulate eCB activity, including myofascial manipulation, diet and lifestyle modifications, and pharmaceutical approaches. SN - 1532-9283 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19083670/Expression_of_the_endocannabinoid_system_in_fibroblasts_and_myofascial_tissues_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1360-8592(08)00007-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -