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Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in India: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study report 2.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in an urban Indian population older than 40 years.

DESIGN

A population-based cross-sectional study.

PARTICIPANTS

Five thousand nine hundred ninety-nine subjects residing in Chennai, India, were enumerated.

METHODS

A multistage random sampling, based on socioeconomic criteria, was followed. Identified subjects with diabetes mellitus (based on the World Health Organization criteria) underwent detailed examination at the base hospital. The fundi of all patients were photographed using 45 degrees , 4-field stereoscopic digital photography. The diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy was based on Klein's classification of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

These included age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, and correlation of prevalence with history-based risk factors.

RESULTS

The age- and gender-adjusted prevalence rate of diabetes in an urban Chennai population was 28.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.0-29.3), and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in general population was 3.5% (95% CI, 3.49-3.54). The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the population with diabetes mellitus was 18.0% (95% CI, 16.0-20.1). History-based variables that were significantly associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy included gender (men at greater risk; odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.91); use of insulin (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 2.05-6.02); longer duration of diabetes (>15 years; OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 3.18-12.90); and subjects with known diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.72-5.17). Differences in the socioeconomic status did not influence the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy.

CONCLUSIONS

The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 18% in an urban population with diabetes mellitus in India. The duration of diabetes is the strongest predictor for diabetic retinopathy.

FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S)

The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreoretinal Services, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

    , , , , ,

    Source

    Ophthalmology 116:2 2009 Feb pg 311-8

    MeSH

    Adult
    Age Distribution
    Aged
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Diabetes Mellitus
    Diabetic Retinopathy
    Female
    Humans
    India
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Odds Ratio
    Prevalence
    Risk Factors
    Sex Distribution
    Urban Population

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19084275

    Citation

    Raman, Rajiv, et al. "Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in India: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study Report 2." Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 2, 2009, pp. 311-8.
    Raman R, Rani PK, Reddi Rachepalle S, et al. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in India: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study report 2. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(2):311-8.
    Raman, R., Rani, P. K., Reddi Rachepalle, S., Gnanamoorthy, P., Uthra, S., Kumaramanickavel, G., & Sharma, T. (2009). Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in India: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study report 2. Ophthalmology, 116(2), pp. 311-8. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.09.010.
    Raman R, et al. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in India: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study Report 2. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(2):311-8. PubMed PMID: 19084275.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in India: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study report 2. AU - Raman,Rajiv, AU - Rani,Padmaja Kumari, AU - Reddi Rachepalle,Sudhir, AU - Gnanamoorthy,Perumal, AU - Uthra,Satagopan, AU - Kumaramanickavel,Govindasamy, AU - Sharma,Tarun, Y1 - 2008/12/12/ PY - 2008/03/24/received PY - 2008/08/26/revised PY - 2008/09/04/accepted PY - 2008/12/17/entrez PY - 2008/12/17/pubmed PY - 2009/2/14/medline SP - 311 EP - 8 JF - Ophthalmology JO - Ophthalmology VL - 116 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in an urban Indian population older than 40 years. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Five thousand nine hundred ninety-nine subjects residing in Chennai, India, were enumerated. METHODS: A multistage random sampling, based on socioeconomic criteria, was followed. Identified subjects with diabetes mellitus (based on the World Health Organization criteria) underwent detailed examination at the base hospital. The fundi of all patients were photographed using 45 degrees , 4-field stereoscopic digital photography. The diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy was based on Klein's classification of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: These included age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, and correlation of prevalence with history-based risk factors. RESULTS: The age- and gender-adjusted prevalence rate of diabetes in an urban Chennai population was 28.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.0-29.3), and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in general population was 3.5% (95% CI, 3.49-3.54). The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the population with diabetes mellitus was 18.0% (95% CI, 16.0-20.1). History-based variables that were significantly associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy included gender (men at greater risk; odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.91); use of insulin (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 2.05-6.02); longer duration of diabetes (>15 years; OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 3.18-12.90); and subjects with known diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.72-5.17). Differences in the socioeconomic status did not influence the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 18% in an urban population with diabetes mellitus in India. The duration of diabetes is the strongest predictor for diabetic retinopathy. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. SN - 1549-4713 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19084275/Prevalence_of_diabetic_retinopathy_in_India:_Sankara_Nethralaya_Diabetic_Retinopathy_Epidemiology_and_Molecular_Genetics_Study_report_2_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0161-6420(08)00897-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -