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Ethnic variance in iron status: is it related to dietary intake?
Public Health Nutr. 2009 Sep; 12(9):1413-21.PH

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

In New Zealand (NZ), Fe deficiency (ID) is present in 14% of children aged <2 years. Prevalence varies with ethnicity (NZ European 7%, Pacific 17%, Maori 20%). We describe dietary Fe intake, how this varies with ethnicity and whether intake predicts Fe status.

DESIGN

A random sample of children aged 6-23 months. Usual Fe intake and dietary sources were estimated from 2 d weighed food records. Associations were determined between adequacy of Fe intake, as measured by the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and ID.

SUBJECTS

Sampling was stratified by ethnicity. Dietary and blood analysis data were available for 247 children.

RESULTS

The median daily Fe intake was 8.3 mg (age 6-11 months) and 6.3 mg (age 12-23 months). Breast milk and milk formulas (median 58%; age 6-11 months), and cereals (41%) and fruit and vegetables (17%; age 12-23 months), were the predominant dietary sources of Fe. Fe intake was below the EAR for 25% of the children. Not meeting the EAR increased the risk of ID for children aged 6-11 months (relative risk = 18.45, 95% CI 3.24, 100.00) and 12-23 months (relative risk = 4.95, 95% CI 1.59, 15.41). In comparison with NZ European, Pacific children had a greater daily Fe intake (P = 0.04) and obtained a larger proportion of Fe from meat and meat dishes (P = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

A significant proportion of young NZ children have inadequate dietary Fe intake. This inadequate intake increases the risk of ID. Ethnic differences in Fe intake do not explain the increased risk of ID for Pacific children.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Wellesley Street, Auckland, New Zealand. c.wall@auckland.ac.nzNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19087385

Citation

Wall, Clare R., et al. "Ethnic Variance in Iron Status: Is It Related to Dietary Intake?" Public Health Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 9, 2009, pp. 1413-21.
Wall CR, Brunt DR, Grant CC. Ethnic variance in iron status: is it related to dietary intake? Public Health Nutr. 2009;12(9):1413-21.
Wall, C. R., Brunt, D. R., & Grant, C. C. (2009). Ethnic variance in iron status: is it related to dietary intake? Public Health Nutrition, 12(9), 1413-21. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980008004187
Wall CR, Brunt DR, Grant CC. Ethnic Variance in Iron Status: Is It Related to Dietary Intake. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12(9):1413-21. PubMed PMID: 19087385.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ethnic variance in iron status: is it related to dietary intake? AU - Wall,Clare R, AU - Brunt,Deborah R, AU - Grant,Cameron C, Y1 - 2008/12/17/ PY - 2008/12/18/entrez PY - 2008/12/18/pubmed PY - 2009/11/10/medline SP - 1413 EP - 21 JF - Public health nutrition JO - Public Health Nutr VL - 12 IS - 9 N2 - OBJECTIVE: In New Zealand (NZ), Fe deficiency (ID) is present in 14% of children aged <2 years. Prevalence varies with ethnicity (NZ European 7%, Pacific 17%, Maori 20%). We describe dietary Fe intake, how this varies with ethnicity and whether intake predicts Fe status. DESIGN: A random sample of children aged 6-23 months. Usual Fe intake and dietary sources were estimated from 2 d weighed food records. Associations were determined between adequacy of Fe intake, as measured by the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and ID. SUBJECTS: Sampling was stratified by ethnicity. Dietary and blood analysis data were available for 247 children. RESULTS: The median daily Fe intake was 8.3 mg (age 6-11 months) and 6.3 mg (age 12-23 months). Breast milk and milk formulas (median 58%; age 6-11 months), and cereals (41%) and fruit and vegetables (17%; age 12-23 months), were the predominant dietary sources of Fe. Fe intake was below the EAR for 25% of the children. Not meeting the EAR increased the risk of ID for children aged 6-11 months (relative risk = 18.45, 95% CI 3.24, 100.00) and 12-23 months (relative risk = 4.95, 95% CI 1.59, 15.41). In comparison with NZ European, Pacific children had a greater daily Fe intake (P = 0.04) and obtained a larger proportion of Fe from meat and meat dishes (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of young NZ children have inadequate dietary Fe intake. This inadequate intake increases the risk of ID. Ethnic differences in Fe intake do not explain the increased risk of ID for Pacific children. SN - 1475-2727 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19087385/Ethnic_variance_in_iron_status:_is_it_related_to_dietary_intake L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1368980008004187/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -