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Amino acid supplementation of hydrolyzed feather meal diets for finisher pigs.
J Anim Sci. 2009 Apr; 87(4):1270-81.JA

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of replacing soybean meal (SBM) in finisher pig diets completely with hydrolyzed feather meal (FM). Forty-five gilts and 45 castrated males (57.8+/-0.8 kg of BW; 3 gilts or 3 castrated males/pen) were randomly assigned to 5 finisher-1 diets with 6 pens per diet. At an average pen BW of 81.0+/-1.4 kg, pigs were offered finisher-2 diets. Corn-SBM, finisher-1 and finisher-2 positive control (PC) diets were formulated to contain 6.1 and 4.7 g of apparent ileal digestible (AID) Lys/kg, respectively. Corn-FM negative control (NC) diets were formulated to be iso-N to the PC diets. The NC diets were supplemented with Lys and Trp (NRC; NC + Lys and Trp) to alleviate apparent deficiencies based on AID AA in FM reported by the 1998 NRC. In addition, the NC diets were supplemented further with the third limiting AA, Thr (40+3AA; NC + Lys, Trp, and Thr), and fourth and fifth limiting AA, His and Ile (40+5AA; NC + Lys, Trp, Thr, His, and Ile), based on the assumption that the apparent ileal digestibility of all indispensable AA in FM is 40%. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water. At the end of the study (112.1+/-1.8 kg), blood samples were collected from all pigs before slaughter. As expected, overall ADFI, AID Lys (representing indispensable AA) intake (LysI), ADG, and G:F were greater and BW gain:LysI (G:LysI) was less in pigs fed the PC diet than those fed the NC diet (P<0.001). Pigs fed the NRC diet grew slower than those fed the PC diet (P=0.004), and their G:LysI tended to be less than those fed the PC (P=0.083) or the 40+3AA and 40+5AA diets (P=0.094). Greater fat-free lean percentage (P=0.005), fat-free lean gain (LG; P<0.001), and LG:F (P<0.001) were observed in pigs fed the PC diet compared with those fed the NC diet, but their LG:F or LG:LysI was similar to those fed the NRC diet. However, LG:F (P=0.030) and LG:LysI (P=0.028) were greater in pigs fed the 40+3AA and the 40+5AA diets than those fed the NRC diet. Pigs fed the 40+5AA diet tended to utilize AID Lys more efficiently for LG than those fed the 40+3AA diet (P=0.068). Subjective meat color (P<0.001), firmness (P=0.004), and marbling (P<0.001) scores were greater in pigs fed the 40+5AA diet than those fed the 40+3AA diet. Diets seemed to have no clear effect on the weight of liver, kidney, and heart or serum urea N and triacylglycerides. Pigs fed the PC diet had more serum albumin and total protein (P<0.001), but less glucose (P=0.031) and cholesterol (P<0.001) than those fed the NC diet. Serum total protein was greater (P=0.031) in pigs fed the 40+5AA diet than those fed the 40+3AA diet. The results indicated that the corn-FM diets were not as effective as the corn-SBM diet in supporting BW gain of finisher pigs. However, the results seemed to indicate that pigs fed the corn-FM diet supplemented with the necessary AA can utilize feed and AA for BW gain and lean gain as efficiently as those fed the corn-SBM diet. Further research is needed to explore fully the optimal AA supplementation strategy to effectively utilize FM for pig production.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19098246

Citation

Divakala, K C., et al. "Amino Acid Supplementation of Hydrolyzed Feather Meal Diets for Finisher Pigs." Journal of Animal Science, vol. 87, no. 4, 2009, pp. 1270-81.
Divakala KC, Chiba LI, Kamalakar RB, et al. Amino acid supplementation of hydrolyzed feather meal diets for finisher pigs. J Anim Sci. 2009;87(4):1270-81.
Divakala, K. C., Chiba, L. I., Kamalakar, R. B., Rodning, S. P., Welles, E. G., Cummins, K. A., Swann, J., Cespedes, F., & Payne, R. L. (2009). Amino acid supplementation of hydrolyzed feather meal diets for finisher pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 87(4), 1270-81. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1121
Divakala KC, et al. Amino Acid Supplementation of Hydrolyzed Feather Meal Diets for Finisher Pigs. J Anim Sci. 2009;87(4):1270-81. PubMed PMID: 19098246.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Amino acid supplementation of hydrolyzed feather meal diets for finisher pigs. AU - Divakala,K C, AU - Chiba,L I, AU - Kamalakar,R B, AU - Rodning,S P, AU - Welles,E G, AU - Cummins,K A, AU - Swann,J, AU - Cespedes,F, AU - Payne,R L, Y1 - 2008/12/19/ PY - 2008/12/23/entrez PY - 2008/12/23/pubmed PY - 2009/4/21/medline SP - 1270 EP - 81 JF - Journal of animal science JO - J Anim Sci VL - 87 IS - 4 N2 - The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of replacing soybean meal (SBM) in finisher pig diets completely with hydrolyzed feather meal (FM). Forty-five gilts and 45 castrated males (57.8+/-0.8 kg of BW; 3 gilts or 3 castrated males/pen) were randomly assigned to 5 finisher-1 diets with 6 pens per diet. At an average pen BW of 81.0+/-1.4 kg, pigs were offered finisher-2 diets. Corn-SBM, finisher-1 and finisher-2 positive control (PC) diets were formulated to contain 6.1 and 4.7 g of apparent ileal digestible (AID) Lys/kg, respectively. Corn-FM negative control (NC) diets were formulated to be iso-N to the PC diets. The NC diets were supplemented with Lys and Trp (NRC; NC + Lys and Trp) to alleviate apparent deficiencies based on AID AA in FM reported by the 1998 NRC. In addition, the NC diets were supplemented further with the third limiting AA, Thr (40+3AA; NC + Lys, Trp, and Thr), and fourth and fifth limiting AA, His and Ile (40+5AA; NC + Lys, Trp, Thr, His, and Ile), based on the assumption that the apparent ileal digestibility of all indispensable AA in FM is 40%. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water. At the end of the study (112.1+/-1.8 kg), blood samples were collected from all pigs before slaughter. As expected, overall ADFI, AID Lys (representing indispensable AA) intake (LysI), ADG, and G:F were greater and BW gain:LysI (G:LysI) was less in pigs fed the PC diet than those fed the NC diet (P<0.001). Pigs fed the NRC diet grew slower than those fed the PC diet (P=0.004), and their G:LysI tended to be less than those fed the PC (P=0.083) or the 40+3AA and 40+5AA diets (P=0.094). Greater fat-free lean percentage (P=0.005), fat-free lean gain (LG; P<0.001), and LG:F (P<0.001) were observed in pigs fed the PC diet compared with those fed the NC diet, but their LG:F or LG:LysI was similar to those fed the NRC diet. However, LG:F (P=0.030) and LG:LysI (P=0.028) were greater in pigs fed the 40+3AA and the 40+5AA diets than those fed the NRC diet. Pigs fed the 40+5AA diet tended to utilize AID Lys more efficiently for LG than those fed the 40+3AA diet (P=0.068). Subjective meat color (P<0.001), firmness (P=0.004), and marbling (P<0.001) scores were greater in pigs fed the 40+5AA diet than those fed the 40+3AA diet. Diets seemed to have no clear effect on the weight of liver, kidney, and heart or serum urea N and triacylglycerides. Pigs fed the PC diet had more serum albumin and total protein (P<0.001), but less glucose (P=0.031) and cholesterol (P<0.001) than those fed the NC diet. Serum total protein was greater (P=0.031) in pigs fed the 40+5AA diet than those fed the 40+3AA diet. The results indicated that the corn-FM diets were not as effective as the corn-SBM diet in supporting BW gain of finisher pigs. However, the results seemed to indicate that pigs fed the corn-FM diet supplemented with the necessary AA can utilize feed and AA for BW gain and lean gain as efficiently as those fed the corn-SBM diet. Further research is needed to explore fully the optimal AA supplementation strategy to effectively utilize FM for pig production. SN - 1525-3163 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19098246/Amino_acid_supplementation_of_hydrolyzed_feather_meal_diets_for_finisher_pigs_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jas/article-lookup/doi/10.2527/jas.2008-1121 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -