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Cognitive and psychomotor effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2009; 204(1):85-94P

Abstract

RATIONALE

Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active constituent of cannabis. In recent years, the average THC content of some cannabis cigarettes has increased up to approximately 60 mg per cigarette (20% THC cigarettes). Acute cognitive and psychomotor effects of THC among recreational users after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing such high doses are unknown.

OBJECTIVES

The objective of this study was to study the dose-effect relationship between the THC dose contained in cannabis cigarettes and cognitive and psychomotor effects for THC doses up to 69.4 mg (23%).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, four-way cross-over study included 24 non-daily male cannabis users (two to nine cannabis cigarettes per month). Participants smoked four cannabis cigarettes containing 0, 29.3, 49.1 and 69.4 mg THC on four exposure days.

RESULTS

The THC dose in smoked cannabis was linearly associated with a slower response time in all tasks (simple reaction time, visuo-spatial selective attention, sustained attention, divided attention and short-term memory tasks) and motor control impairment in the motor control task. The number of errors increased significantly with increasing doses in the short-term memory and the sustained attention tasks. Some participants showed no impairment in motor control even at THC serum concentrations higher than 40 ng/mL. High feeling and drowsiness differed significantly between treatments.

CONCLUSIONS

Response time slowed down and motor control worsened, both linearly, with increasing THC doses. Consequently, cannabis with high THC concentrations may be a concern for public health and safety if cannabis smokers are unable to titrate to a high feeling corresponding to a desired plasma THC level.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Poisons Information Center, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. claudine.hunault@rivm.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19099294

Citation

Hunault, Claudine C., et al. "Cognitive and Psychomotor Effects in Males After Smoking a Combination of Tobacco and Cannabis Containing Up to 69 Mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)." Psychopharmacology, vol. 204, no. 1, 2009, pp. 85-94.
Hunault CC, Mensinga TT, Böcker KB, et al. Cognitive and psychomotor effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;204(1):85-94.
Hunault, C. C., Mensinga, T. T., Böcker, K. B., Schipper, C. M., Kruidenier, M., Leenders, M. E., ... Meulenbelt, J. (2009). Cognitive and psychomotor effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Psychopharmacology, 204(1), pp. 85-94. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1440-0.
Hunault CC, et al. Cognitive and Psychomotor Effects in Males After Smoking a Combination of Tobacco and Cannabis Containing Up to 69 Mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;204(1):85-94. PubMed PMID: 19099294.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cognitive and psychomotor effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). AU - Hunault,Claudine C, AU - Mensinga,Tjeert T, AU - Böcker,Koen B E, AU - Schipper,C Maarten A, AU - Kruidenier,Maaike, AU - Leenders,Marianne E C, AU - de Vries,Irma, AU - Meulenbelt,Jan, Y1 - 2008/12/20/ PY - 2008/03/20/received PY - 2008/12/05/accepted PY - 2008/12/23/entrez PY - 2008/12/23/pubmed PY - 2009/9/3/medline SP - 85 EP - 94 JF - Psychopharmacology JO - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) VL - 204 IS - 1 N2 - RATIONALE: Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active constituent of cannabis. In recent years, the average THC content of some cannabis cigarettes has increased up to approximately 60 mg per cigarette (20% THC cigarettes). Acute cognitive and psychomotor effects of THC among recreational users after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing such high doses are unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to study the dose-effect relationship between the THC dose contained in cannabis cigarettes and cognitive and psychomotor effects for THC doses up to 69.4 mg (23%). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, four-way cross-over study included 24 non-daily male cannabis users (two to nine cannabis cigarettes per month). Participants smoked four cannabis cigarettes containing 0, 29.3, 49.1 and 69.4 mg THC on four exposure days. RESULTS: The THC dose in smoked cannabis was linearly associated with a slower response time in all tasks (simple reaction time, visuo-spatial selective attention, sustained attention, divided attention and short-term memory tasks) and motor control impairment in the motor control task. The number of errors increased significantly with increasing doses in the short-term memory and the sustained attention tasks. Some participants showed no impairment in motor control even at THC serum concentrations higher than 40 ng/mL. High feeling and drowsiness differed significantly between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Response time slowed down and motor control worsened, both linearly, with increasing THC doses. Consequently, cannabis with high THC concentrations may be a concern for public health and safety if cannabis smokers are unable to titrate to a high feeling corresponding to a desired plasma THC level. SN - 1432-2072 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19099294/Cognitive_and_psychomotor_effects_in_males_after_smoking_a_combination_of_tobacco_and_cannabis_containing_up_to_69_mg_delta_9_tetrahydrocannabinol__THC__ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-008-1440-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -