[Clinical studies of children with bronchiolitis obliterans].Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2008; 46(10):732-8ZE
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic airflow obstruction syndrome associated with inflammatory lesions of the small airways. The etiology, pathogenesis, effective treatment and prognosis of this disorder remain uncertain by now. There has been no large scale clinical research on BO in China. This study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of BO in children.
Clinical analysis was done on data of 42 patients (31 boys and 11 girls, aged from 7 months to 12 years and 2 months) with bronchiolitis obliterans diagnosed and treated in Beijing Children's Hospital from April 2001 to August 2007. The diagnostic criteria included typical clinical manifestations, specific pulmonary CT imaging and lung function tests.
All the patients presented with persistent cough and wheezing. Crackles and wheezing were heard in most cases. Thirty-two (76.2%) cases were post-infectious BO, among whom 8 (25%) were supposed to be adenovirus pneumonia, 7 (21.9%) measles pneumonia and 2 (6.2%) respiratory syncytial virus infection. In 4 (9.5%) cases BO occurred after Steven-Johnson syndrome, and 1 (2.4%) after bone marrow transplantation. The constrictive obstruction in small airway occurred in 35 cases (89.7%), while mixed pattern in 4 (10.3%). Pulmonary CT revealed mosaic perfusion in 34 cases (81.0%), bronchiectasis in 14 cases (33.3%), bronchial wall thickening in 14 cases (33.3%), atelectasis in 4 cases (9.5%) and Swyer-James syndrome in 2 cases (4.8%). All the cases received oral corticosteroid and low doses of erythromycin or azithromycin, with corticosteroid and bronchodilator inhalation or oral montelukast. Follow up time was from 1 month to 5 years. Besides 2 cases in whom the disease was ameliorated in clinical presentation, pulmonary imaging and function, the rest experienced deterioration and one died.
In most of the patients BO occurred following infections. The specific clinical presentations, imaging and pulmonary function are sufficiently informative for diagnosis. Most of the cases enrolled in this study had a poor outcome.