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Depression and anxiety among US adults: associations with body mass index.
Int J Obes (Lond) 2009; 33(2):257-66IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing a variety of chronic diseases, most of which are associated with psychiatric disorders. We examined the associations of depression and anxiety with body mass index (BMI) after taking into consideration the obesity-related comorbidities (ORCs) and other psychosocial or lifestyle factors.

METHODS

We analyzed the data collected from 177,047 participants (aged>or=18 years) in the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Current depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 diagnostic algorithm. Lifetime diagnoses of depression, anxiety and ORCs were self-reported. The prevalence of the three psychiatric disorders was age standardized to the 2000 US population. Multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratios were computed to test associations of depression and anxiety with BMI using SUDAAN software.

RESULTS

The age-adjusted prevalence of current depression, lifetime diagnosed depression and anxiety varied significantly by gender. Within each gender, the prevalence of the three psychiatric disorders was significantly higher in both men and women who were underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2)), in women who were overweight (BMI: 25-<30 kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI>or=30 kg/m(2)), and in men who had class III obesity (BMI>or=40 kg/m(2)) than in those with a normal BMI (18.5-<25 kg/m(2)). After adjusting for demographics, ORCs, lifestyle or psychosocial factors, compared with men with a normal BMI, men with a BMI>or=40 kg/m(2) were significantly more likely to have current depression or lifetime diagnosed depression and anxiety; men with a BMI<18.5 kg/m(2) were also significantly more likely to have lifetime diagnosed depression. Women who were either overweight or obese were significantly more likely than women with a normal BMI to have all the three psychiatric disorders.

CONCLUSIONS

Our results demonstrate that disparities in the prevalence of depression and anxiety exist among people with different BMI levels independent of their disease status or other psychosocial or lifestyle factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. GZhao@cdc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19125163

Citation

Zhao, G, et al. "Depression and Anxiety Among US Adults: Associations With Body Mass Index." International Journal of Obesity (2005), vol. 33, no. 2, 2009, pp. 257-66.
Zhao G, Ford ES, Dhingra S, et al. Depression and anxiety among US adults: associations with body mass index. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33(2):257-66.
Zhao, G., Ford, E. S., Dhingra, S., Li, C., Strine, T. W., & Mokdad, A. H. (2009). Depression and anxiety among US adults: associations with body mass index. International Journal of Obesity (2005), 33(2), pp. 257-66. doi:10.1038/ijo.2008.268.
Zhao G, et al. Depression and Anxiety Among US Adults: Associations With Body Mass Index. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33(2):257-66. PubMed PMID: 19125163.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Depression and anxiety among US adults: associations with body mass index. AU - Zhao,G, AU - Ford,E S, AU - Dhingra,S, AU - Li,C, AU - Strine,T W, AU - Mokdad,A H, Y1 - 2009/01/06/ PY - 2009/1/7/entrez PY - 2009/1/7/pubmed PY - 2009/10/15/medline SP - 257 EP - 66 JF - International journal of obesity (2005) JO - Int J Obes (Lond) VL - 33 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing a variety of chronic diseases, most of which are associated with psychiatric disorders. We examined the associations of depression and anxiety with body mass index (BMI) after taking into consideration the obesity-related comorbidities (ORCs) and other psychosocial or lifestyle factors. METHODS: We analyzed the data collected from 177,047 participants (aged>or=18 years) in the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Current depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 diagnostic algorithm. Lifetime diagnoses of depression, anxiety and ORCs were self-reported. The prevalence of the three psychiatric disorders was age standardized to the 2000 US population. Multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratios were computed to test associations of depression and anxiety with BMI using SUDAAN software. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of current depression, lifetime diagnosed depression and anxiety varied significantly by gender. Within each gender, the prevalence of the three psychiatric disorders was significantly higher in both men and women who were underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2)), in women who were overweight (BMI: 25-<30 kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI>or=30 kg/m(2)), and in men who had class III obesity (BMI>or=40 kg/m(2)) than in those with a normal BMI (18.5-<25 kg/m(2)). After adjusting for demographics, ORCs, lifestyle or psychosocial factors, compared with men with a normal BMI, men with a BMI>or=40 kg/m(2) were significantly more likely to have current depression or lifetime diagnosed depression and anxiety; men with a BMI<18.5 kg/m(2) were also significantly more likely to have lifetime diagnosed depression. Women who were either overweight or obese were significantly more likely than women with a normal BMI to have all the three psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that disparities in the prevalence of depression and anxiety exist among people with different BMI levels independent of their disease status or other psychosocial or lifestyle factors. SN - 1476-5497 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19125163/Depression_and_anxiety_among_US_adults:_associations_with_body_mass_index_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2008.268 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -