Atherogenic forms of dyslipidaemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Int J Clin Pract 2009; 63(1):56-62IJ
Dyslipidaemia is very common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but, beyond plasma lipids, atherogenic lipoprotein (Lp) and apolipoprotein (apo) alterations are still ill defined.
We measured concentrations of apoB, Lp(a) and small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in 42 patients with PCOS [age: 28 +/- 7 years, body mass index (BMI): 27 +/- 5 kg/m(2)] vs. 37 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls.
Elevated Lp(a) levels considered were those > 30 mg/dl while elevated apoB concentrations were those > 100 g/l.
Polycystic ovary syndrome showed increased triglycerides levels (p = 0.0011) and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations (p = 0.0131) while total- and LDL cholesterol were similar. PCOS also showed smaller LDL size (p = 0.0005), higher levels of total small, dense LDL (p < 0.0001), higher concentrations of Lp(a), as considered as absolute values (p = 0.0143) and log-transformed (p = 0.0014), while no differences were found in apoB levels. Elevated Lp(a) concentrations were found in 24% of PCOS, while elevated apoB levels were relatively uncommon (14%). Spearman correlation analysis revealed that Lp(a) concentrations were weakly correlated only with HDL-cholesterol levels (r = -0.378, p = 0.0431). In addition, 36% of patients with PCOS with normal plasma lipid profile showed elevated levels of Lp(a), apoB or small, dense LDL.
Atherogenic Lp abnormalities may be found in one-third of women with PCOS who have a normal lipid pattern. Future prospective studies are needed to test to which extent such atherogenic forms of dyslipidaemia may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in young women with PCOS.