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Antibiotic prescribing practices in primary and secondary health care facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India.
J Clin Pharm Ther. 2008 Dec; 33(6):625-34.JC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Emerging antibiotic resistance in common pathogens is a worldwide problem known to be related to inappropriate overuse of antibiotics. Wide variability in antibiotic use throughout the world is because of various factors, including socio-cultural differences.

OBJECTIVE

To study the rate of antibiotic prescribing for common outpatient illnesses and the various disease, patient, physician and health facility characteristics, which influence this in primary and secondary healthcare settings in Uttar Pradesh.

METHODS

After sampling of health facilities - both private and government, rural and urban, a cross-sectional survey of prescriptions for patients presenting with runny or blocked nose, cough, sore throat, diarrhoea or fever without localizing symptoms was conducted. Information on disease, patient, physician and facility characteristics was collected. Outcome factors: antibiotic prescription and group of antibiotic prescribed. No intervention was made.

RESULTS

Overall antibiotic prescription rate was 81.8%. It was significantly higher in urban private than in government settings, and higher in rural than in urban settings. Presence of fever prompted antibiotic use across all strata. Lower age of patients and higher socioeconomic status were associated with higher antibiotic use. Patient requests for antibiotics were very rare. Specialist practices with staff with higher qualifications and better opportunities for updating knowledge were associated with lower antibiotic prescribing. Government health-facilities with larger staff complement and better infrastructure was associated with lower prescribing rates. The most common antimicrobial agents used were the penicillin, sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones. Injection use paralleled antibiotic use.

CONCLUSIONS

These data on overprescribing of antibiotics can be used to design educational programs for physicians working in these settings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pediatrics, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India. rashmik2005@gmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19138240

Citation

Kumar, R, et al. "Antibiotic Prescribing Practices in Primary and Secondary Health Care Facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India." Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, vol. 33, no. 6, 2008, pp. 625-34.
Kumar R, Indira K, Rizvi A, et al. Antibiotic prescribing practices in primary and secondary health care facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2008;33(6):625-34.
Kumar, R., Indira, K., Rizvi, A., Rizvi, T., & Jeyaseelan, L. (2008). Antibiotic prescribing practices in primary and secondary health care facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 33(6), 625-34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00960.x
Kumar R, et al. Antibiotic Prescribing Practices in Primary and Secondary Health Care Facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2008;33(6):625-34. PubMed PMID: 19138240.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antibiotic prescribing practices in primary and secondary health care facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India. AU - Kumar,R, AU - Indira,K, AU - Rizvi,A, AU - Rizvi,T, AU - Jeyaseelan,L, PY - 2009/1/14/entrez PY - 2009/1/14/pubmed PY - 2009/3/10/medline SP - 625 EP - 34 JF - Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics JO - J Clin Pharm Ther VL - 33 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Emerging antibiotic resistance in common pathogens is a worldwide problem known to be related to inappropriate overuse of antibiotics. Wide variability in antibiotic use throughout the world is because of various factors, including socio-cultural differences. OBJECTIVE: To study the rate of antibiotic prescribing for common outpatient illnesses and the various disease, patient, physician and health facility characteristics, which influence this in primary and secondary healthcare settings in Uttar Pradesh. METHODS: After sampling of health facilities - both private and government, rural and urban, a cross-sectional survey of prescriptions for patients presenting with runny or blocked nose, cough, sore throat, diarrhoea or fever without localizing symptoms was conducted. Information on disease, patient, physician and facility characteristics was collected. Outcome factors: antibiotic prescription and group of antibiotic prescribed. No intervention was made. RESULTS: Overall antibiotic prescription rate was 81.8%. It was significantly higher in urban private than in government settings, and higher in rural than in urban settings. Presence of fever prompted antibiotic use across all strata. Lower age of patients and higher socioeconomic status were associated with higher antibiotic use. Patient requests for antibiotics were very rare. Specialist practices with staff with higher qualifications and better opportunities for updating knowledge were associated with lower antibiotic prescribing. Government health-facilities with larger staff complement and better infrastructure was associated with lower prescribing rates. The most common antimicrobial agents used were the penicillin, sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones. Injection use paralleled antibiotic use. CONCLUSIONS: These data on overprescribing of antibiotics can be used to design educational programs for physicians working in these settings. SN - 1365-2710 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19138240/Antibiotic_prescribing_practices_in_primary_and_secondary_health_care_facilities_in_Uttar_Pradesh_India_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00960.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -