Assessment of genotoxic and mutagenic effects of chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) using micronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis.Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Mar; 47(3):650-6.FC
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the single largest selling agrochemical that has been widely detected in surface waters in India. The studies on long-term genotoxic effects of CPF in different tissues of fish using genotoxic biomarkers are limited. Therefore, in the present study DNA damage by CPF in freshwater fish Channapunctatus using micronucleus (MN) and comet assays was investigated. The LC(50) - 96 h of CPF was estimated for the fish in a semi-static system. On this basis of LC(50) value sublethal and nonlethal concentrations were determined. The DNA damage was measured in lymphocytes and gill cells as the percentage of DNA in comet tails and micronuclei were scored in erythrocytes of fishes exposed to above concentrations of CPF. In general, significant effects for both the concentrations and time of exposure were observed in treated fish. It was found that MN induction in the blood was highest on day 14 at 203.0 microg/l of CPF. The highest DNA damage was observed on day 5, followed by a gradual non-linear decline in the lymphocytes and gill cells. The study indicated MN and comet assays to be sensitive and rapid methods to detect mutagenicity and genotoxicity of CPF and other pollutants in fishes.