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The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors.
Int J Obes (Lond) 2009; 33(3):296-304IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

High-protein (HP) diets are often advocated for weight reduction and weight loss maintenance.

OBJECTIVE

The aim was to compare the effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) and low-fat, HP ad libitum diets on weight maintenance after weight loss induced by a very low-calorie diet, and on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy obese subjects.

DESIGN

Forty-eight subjects completed the study that consisted of an energy restriction period of 5-6 weeks followed by a weight maintenance period of 12 weeks. During weight maintenance subjects received maltodextrin (HC group) or protein (HP group) (casein (HPC subgroup) or whey (HPW subgroup)) supplements (2 x 25 g per day), respectively and consumed a low-fat diet.

RESULTS

Subjects in the HP diet group showed significantly better weight maintenance after weight loss (2.3 kg difference, P=0.04) and fat mass reduction (2.2 kg difference, P=0.02) than subjects in the HC group. Triglyceride (0.6 mM difference, P=0.01) and glucagon (9.6 pg ml(-1) difference, P=0.02) concentrations increased more in the HC diet group, while glucose (0.3 mM difference, P=0.02) concentration increased more in the HP diet group. Changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin, HOMAir index, HbA1c, leptin and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the diets. No differences were found between the casein- or whey-supplemented HP groups.

CONCLUSIONS

These results show that low-fat, high-casein or whey protein weight maintenance diets are more effective for weight control than low-fat, HC diets and do not adversely affect metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in weight-reduced moderately obese subjects without metabolic or cardiovascular complications.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19153580

Citation

Claessens, M, et al. "The Effect of a Low-fat, High-protein or High-carbohydrate Ad Libitum Diet On Weight Loss Maintenance and Metabolic Risk Factors." International Journal of Obesity (2005), vol. 33, no. 3, 2009, pp. 296-304.
Claessens M, van Baak MA, Monsheimer S, et al. The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33(3):296-304.
Claessens, M., van Baak, M. A., Monsheimer, S., & Saris, W. H. (2009). The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors. International Journal of Obesity (2005), 33(3), pp. 296-304. doi:10.1038/ijo.2008.278.
Claessens M, et al. The Effect of a Low-fat, High-protein or High-carbohydrate Ad Libitum Diet On Weight Loss Maintenance and Metabolic Risk Factors. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33(3):296-304. PubMed PMID: 19153580.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors. AU - Claessens,M, AU - van Baak,M A, AU - Monsheimer,S, AU - Saris,W H M, Y1 - 2009/01/20/ PY - 2009/1/21/entrez PY - 2009/1/21/pubmed PY - 2010/1/30/medline SP - 296 EP - 304 JF - International journal of obesity (2005) JO - Int J Obes (Lond) VL - 33 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: High-protein (HP) diets are often advocated for weight reduction and weight loss maintenance. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare the effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) and low-fat, HP ad libitum diets on weight maintenance after weight loss induced by a very low-calorie diet, and on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy obese subjects. DESIGN: Forty-eight subjects completed the study that consisted of an energy restriction period of 5-6 weeks followed by a weight maintenance period of 12 weeks. During weight maintenance subjects received maltodextrin (HC group) or protein (HP group) (casein (HPC subgroup) or whey (HPW subgroup)) supplements (2 x 25 g per day), respectively and consumed a low-fat diet. RESULTS: Subjects in the HP diet group showed significantly better weight maintenance after weight loss (2.3 kg difference, P=0.04) and fat mass reduction (2.2 kg difference, P=0.02) than subjects in the HC group. Triglyceride (0.6 mM difference, P=0.01) and glucagon (9.6 pg ml(-1) difference, P=0.02) concentrations increased more in the HC diet group, while glucose (0.3 mM difference, P=0.02) concentration increased more in the HP diet group. Changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin, HOMAir index, HbA1c, leptin and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the diets. No differences were found between the casein- or whey-supplemented HP groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that low-fat, high-casein or whey protein weight maintenance diets are more effective for weight control than low-fat, HC diets and do not adversely affect metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in weight-reduced moderately obese subjects without metabolic or cardiovascular complications. SN - 1476-5497 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19153580/The_effect_of_a_low_fat_high_protein_or_high_carbohydrate_ad_libitum_diet_on_weight_loss_maintenance_and_metabolic_risk_factors_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2008.278 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -