Enrichment of the thymoquinone content in volatile oil from Satureja montana using supercritical fluid extraction.J Sep Sci. 2009 Jan; 32(2):328-34.JS
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of the volatile oil from Satureja montana L. was performed under different conditions of pressure (90 and 100 bar), temperature (40 and 50 degrees C), mean particle sizes (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm) and CO(2) flow rate (0.8, 1.1 and 1.3 kg/h) to understand the influence of these parameters on the composition and yield of this oil. The results were compared with those obtained for the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation (HD). The volatile and the essential oil were analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main compounds are carvacrol (52.2-62.0% for HD vs. 41.7-64.5% for SFE), thymol (8.6-11.0% for HD vs. 6.0-11.3% for SFE), p-cymene (6.9-12.8% for HD vs. 6.0-17.8% for SFE), gamma-terpinene (6.4-9.4% for HD vs. 2.3-6.0% for SFE) and beta-bisabolene (2.0-2.7% for HD vs. 2.2-3.5% for SFE). The major difference between SFE and HD was the relative amount of thymoquinone, an oxygenated monoterpene with important biological activities, which can be ten-fold higher in volatile oil (1.6-3.0 for SFE vs. 0.2% for HD). The morphology of the glandular trichomes of S. montana and the effect of the grinding process on them was also evaluated by SEM.