Sphingosine kinase 1 is essential for proteinase-activated receptor-1 signalling in epithelial and endothelial cells.Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009 Jul; 41(7):1547-55.IJ
There is accumulating evidence that activation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) is an important element in intracellular signalling cascades initiated by stimulation of multiple receptors, including certain growth factor, cytokine, and also G-protein coupled receptors. We here report that stimulation of the lung epithelial cell line A549 by thrombin leads to transient increase of SPHK1 activity and elevation of intracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P); abrogation of this stimulation by SPHK1-specific siRNA, pharmacological inhibition, or expression of a dominant-negative SPHK1 mutant blocks the response to thrombin, as measured by secretion of MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8, and PGE(2). Using selective stimulation of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) a specific involvement of SPHK1 in the PAR-1 induced responses in A549 cell, including activation of NFkappaB, was evident, while PAR-2 and PAR-4 responses were independent of SPHK1. Moreover, PAR-1 or thrombin-induced cytokine production and adhesion factor expression of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was also seen to depend on SPHK1. Using dermal microvascular endothelial cells from SPHK1-deficient mice, we showed that absence of the enzyme abrogates MCP-1 production induced in these cells upon treatment with thrombin or PAR-1 activating peptide. We propose SPHK1 inhibition as a novel way to block PAR-1 mediated signalling, which could be useful in treatment of a number of diseases, in particular in atherosclerosis.