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Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.
PLoS One. 2009; 4(1):e4244.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban.

METHODS AND FINDING

We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8%) were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.01). Cotinine concentration decreased by 27.6% (p = 0.068) among workers in venues with designated smoking areas, and by 10.7% (p = 0.475) among workers in venues where smoking was allowed. In Portugal and Andorra, no differences between cotinine concentration were found before (1.2 ng/ml) and after the ban (1.2 ng/ml). In Spain, reported respiratory symptom declined significantly (by 71.9%; p<0.05) among workers in venues that became smoke-free. After adjustment for potential confounders, salivary cotinine and respiratory symptoms decreased significantly among workers in Spanish hospitality venues where smoking was totally banned.

CONCLUSIONS

Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS or its consequences for respiratory health.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Tobacco Research & Control Unit, Institut Català d'Oncologia, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain. efernandez@ico.scs.esNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19165321

Citation

Fernández, Esteve, et al. "Impact of the Spanish Smoking Law On Exposure to Second-hand Smoke and Respiratory Health in Hospitality Workers: a Cohort Study." PloS One, vol. 4, no. 1, 2009, pp. e4244.
Fernández E, Fu M, Pascual JA, et al. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study. PLoS One. 2009;4(1):e4244.
Fernández, E., Fu, M., Pascual, J. A., López, M. J., Pérez-Ríos, M., Schiaffino, A., Martínez-Sánchez, J. M., Ariza, C., Saltó, E., & Nebot, M. (2009). Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study. PloS One, 4(1), e4244. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004244
Fernández E, et al. Impact of the Spanish Smoking Law On Exposure to Second-hand Smoke and Respiratory Health in Hospitality Workers: a Cohort Study. PLoS One. 2009;4(1):e4244. PubMed PMID: 19165321.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study. AU - Fernández,Esteve, AU - Fu,Marcela, AU - Pascual,José A, AU - López,María J, AU - Pérez-Ríos,Mónica, AU - Schiaffino,Anna, AU - Martínez-Sánchez,Jose M, AU - Ariza,Carles, AU - Saltó,Esteve, AU - Nebot,Manel, AU - ,, Y1 - 2009/01/23/ PY - 2008/07/24/received PY - 2008/12/05/accepted PY - 2009/1/24/entrez PY - 2009/1/24/pubmed PY - 2009/4/15/medline SP - e4244 EP - e4244 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 4 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. METHODS AND FINDING: We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8%) were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.01). Cotinine concentration decreased by 27.6% (p = 0.068) among workers in venues with designated smoking areas, and by 10.7% (p = 0.475) among workers in venues where smoking was allowed. In Portugal and Andorra, no differences between cotinine concentration were found before (1.2 ng/ml) and after the ban (1.2 ng/ml). In Spain, reported respiratory symptom declined significantly (by 71.9%; p<0.05) among workers in venues that became smoke-free. After adjustment for potential confounders, salivary cotinine and respiratory symptoms decreased significantly among workers in Spanish hospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. CONCLUSIONS: Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS or its consequences for respiratory health. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19165321/Impact_of_the_Spanish_smoking_law_on_exposure_to_second_hand_smoke_and_respiratory_health_in_hospitality_workers:_a_cohort_study_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004244 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -