Impact of maternal dietary fatty acid composition on glucose and lipid metabolism in male rat offspring aged 105 d.Br J Nutr. 2009 Jul; 102(2):233-41.BJ
In recent years the intake of n-6 PUFA and trans-fatty acids (TFA) has increased, whereas n-3 PUFA intake has decreased. The present study investigated the effects of maternal diet high in n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA or TFA on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and fatty acid profile in male offspring. Female weanling Wistar/NIN rats were randomly assigned to receive either a diet high in linoleic acid (LA), or alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or long-chain n-3 PUFA (fish oil; FO), or TFA, for 90 d, and mated. Upon weaning, pups were randomly divided into seven groups (mother's diet-pup's diet): LA-LA, LA-ALA, LA-FO, ALA-ALA, FO-FO, TFA-TFA and TFA-LA. At the age of 105 d, an oral glucose tolerance test, adipocyte glucose transport and muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition were measured in the pups. All animals displayed normal insulin sensitivity as evidenced by similar plasma insulin and area under the curve of insulin after an oral glucose load. Maternal intake of n-3 PUFA (ALA or FO) resulted in higher n-3 PUFA in the offspring. Plasma cholesterol and NEFA were significantly higher in the TFA-TFA group compared with the other groups. Adipocyte insulin-stimulated glucose transport and adiponectin mRNA expression were lower in TFA-TFA and TFA-LA offspring compared with the other groups. While most mother-pup fatty acid combinations did not influence the measured variables in the pups, these results indicate that maternal intake of TFA led to an unfavourable profile in the pups through to the age of 105 d, whether the pups consumed TFA, or not.