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Availability and consumption of competitive foods in US public schools.
J Am Diet Assoc 2009; 109(2 Suppl):S57-66JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

With ongoing efforts to develop and implement school wellness policies, there is a need for information about the availability and consumption of competitive foods in schools.

OBJECTIVE

To describe the availability of competitive foods in US public schools, consumption of competitive foods by children, and contributions of competitive foods to energy intakes.

DESIGN

The study used data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a cross-sectional study that included a national sample of public school districts, schools, and children in the 2004-2005 school year. On-site observations were used to document the availability of competitive foods and a 24-hour recall was used to assess children's consumption of competitive foods.

SUBJECTS/SETTING

The study included 287 schools and 2,314 children in grades 1 through 12.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED

Most analyses were limited to estimation of means and proportions. Two-tailed t tests were used to test the significance of differences between children who did and did not eat a school lunch.

RESULTS

In school year 2004-2005, competitive foods were widely available in public schools. Overall, 40% of children consumed one or more competitive foods on a typical school day. The most commonly consumed competitive foods were foods and beverages that were low in nutrients and energy-dense. Children who ate a school lunch were significantly less likely than children who did not eat a school lunch to consume competitive foods (36% vs 45%; P<0.01); however, the leading competitive food choices for both groups of children were foods that were low in nutrients and energy-dense. On average, competitive food consumers who ate school lunches obtained 159 calories from competitive foods that were low in nutrients and energy-dense, compared with 201 calories for competitive food consumers who did not eat school lunches (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

In school year 2004-2005, competitive foods were widely available and consumed in US public schools and the most commonly consumed competitive foods were low in nutrients and energy-dense. These data support the need for improvements in school food environments and policies and provide a useful baseline for monitoring change as schools work to make these improvements.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Mathematica Policy Research, Inc, 955 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. mfox@mathematica-mpr.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19166673

Citation

Fox, Mary Kay, et al. "Availability and Consumption of Competitive Foods in US Public Schools." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 109, no. 2 Suppl, 2009, pp. S57-66.
Fox MK, Gordon A, Nogales R, et al. Availability and consumption of competitive foods in US public schools. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(2 Suppl):S57-66.
Fox, M. K., Gordon, A., Nogales, R., & Wilson, A. (2009). Availability and consumption of competitive foods in US public schools. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(2 Suppl), pp. S57-66. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.10.063.
Fox MK, et al. Availability and Consumption of Competitive Foods in US Public Schools. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(2 Suppl):S57-66. PubMed PMID: 19166673.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Availability and consumption of competitive foods in US public schools. AU - Fox,Mary Kay, AU - Gordon,Anne, AU - Nogales,Renée, AU - Wilson,Ander, PY - 2008/07/14/received PY - 2009/1/27/entrez PY - 2009/3/17/pubmed PY - 2009/4/7/medline SP - S57 EP - 66 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 109 IS - 2 Suppl N2 - BACKGROUND: With ongoing efforts to develop and implement school wellness policies, there is a need for information about the availability and consumption of competitive foods in schools. OBJECTIVE: To describe the availability of competitive foods in US public schools, consumption of competitive foods by children, and contributions of competitive foods to energy intakes. DESIGN: The study used data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a cross-sectional study that included a national sample of public school districts, schools, and children in the 2004-2005 school year. On-site observations were used to document the availability of competitive foods and a 24-hour recall was used to assess children's consumption of competitive foods. SUBJECTS/SETTING: The study included 287 schools and 2,314 children in grades 1 through 12. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Most analyses were limited to estimation of means and proportions. Two-tailed t tests were used to test the significance of differences between children who did and did not eat a school lunch. RESULTS: In school year 2004-2005, competitive foods were widely available in public schools. Overall, 40% of children consumed one or more competitive foods on a typical school day. The most commonly consumed competitive foods were foods and beverages that were low in nutrients and energy-dense. Children who ate a school lunch were significantly less likely than children who did not eat a school lunch to consume competitive foods (36% vs 45%; P<0.01); however, the leading competitive food choices for both groups of children were foods that were low in nutrients and energy-dense. On average, competitive food consumers who ate school lunches obtained 159 calories from competitive foods that were low in nutrients and energy-dense, compared with 201 calories for competitive food consumers who did not eat school lunches (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In school year 2004-2005, competitive foods were widely available and consumed in US public schools and the most commonly consumed competitive foods were low in nutrients and energy-dense. These data support the need for improvements in school food environments and policies and provide a useful baseline for monitoring change as schools work to make these improvements. SN - 1878-3570 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19166673/Availability_and_consumption_of_competitive_foods_in_US_public_schools_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(08)02056-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -