Urinary isoflavones and their metabolites validate the dietary isoflavone intakes in US adults.J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Feb; 109(2):245-54.JA
Isoflavones are derived from dietary sources and considered to promote health by preventing the onset of such chronic diseases as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and osteoporosis. Valid and reliable estimation of isoflavone intake is a prerequisite to establishing biological functions of isoflavones on health risks.
This study aimed to validate the approach of estimating dietary isoflavone intake with respective urinary isoflavone concentrations in US adults.
Data from the US Department of Agriculture isoflavone database and dietary recalls of 2,908 US adults with urinary isoflavone data in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used.
Dietary isoflavone was consumed by only 35% of adults in a day with an average intake of 3.1 mg/day, which resulted in a mean intake of 1.0 mg/day for all US adults. The isoflavone intakes were from genistein (55%), diadzein (35%), glycitein (7%), biochanin A (2%), and formononetin (2%). Both daily total and energy adjusted isoflavone intake differed by race/ethnicity subgroups (P<0.05) and was associated positively with income (P<0.01) and inversely with body mass index (P<0.05). Geometric mean urinary isoflavone concentration was 5.0 ng/mL among isoflavone consumers and the urinary genistein and daidzein excretion correlated with their isoflavone intake levels (P<0.01).
In large population-based studies, estimated dietary isoflavone intake can be validated by urinary isoflavones. Further studies are needed at an individual level to validate dietary isoflavone intake by urinary isoflavone concentration.